AKR mink cell focusinducing virus A

possible subspecies in the genus Gammaretrovirus. A helper independent virus isolated from AKR thymoma cells. Probably a recombinant between ecotropic AKR mouse leukemia virus and a xenotropic virus.

Hartley JW et al (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci 74, 789

AKT The oncogene specified by AKT8 virus. The human cellular homologs, known as c-AKT1 and c-AKT2, encode protein kinase C-related serine/threonine kinases.

AKT8 virus A probable species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. An acute transforming strain of mouse leukemia virus.

Alagoas virus A strain of Vesicular stomatitis virus isolated in suckling mice from the tongue epithelium of a mule with vesicular lesions of the tongue and feet. Found in Alagoas state, Brazil. Serological surveys suggest that infection occurs in humans, horses, donkeys, monkeys and bats in various states in Brazil. A few cases of febrile disease with headache and malaise have been reported in humans.

Alajuela virus (ALJV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus in the Gamboa serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes, Aedeomyia squamipennis. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Calisher CH et al (1981) Am J Trop Med Hyg 30, 219

alanine aminotransferase (ALT) A metabolic enzyme the activity of which can be detected in serum or plasma. Elevations of ALT activity occur as a result of liver damage, and are indicative of such damage in hepatitis virus infections.

Alastrim virus Synonym for variola minor virus. See Variola virus.

albatrosspox virus A probable species in the genus Avipoxvirus.

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AIHV-1) An unassigned species in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Causes a widespread, sporadic, often fatal disease of cattle, with fever, acute inflammation of nasal and oral membranes, and

Allerton virus involvement of pharynx and lungs. There is often keratitis and nervous symptoms. Epidemiological evidence suggests that infection can be transmitted to cattle from African antelope of the family Bovidae, subfamily Alcelaphinae which includes wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus and C. gnu, hartebeest, Alcelaphus sp and topi, Damaliscus sp, which may carry the virus as a latent infection. The virus can be transmitted experimentally to cattle and rabbits. There is replication in cell cultures of fetal bovine thyroid, adrenal, kidney, spleen and lung. The virus will also replicate in Vero cells. Synonyms: bovine epitheliosis virus; bovine herpesvirus 3; malignant catarrhal fever virus; Snotsiekte virus; wildebeest herpesvirus.

Bridgen A (1991) Arch Virol 117, 183 Bridgen A and Reid HW (1991) Res Vet Sci 50,

Rossiter PB (1985) Prog Vet Microbiol Immun 1, 121

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2 (AIHV-2) An unassigned species in the subfamily


Synonym: hartebeest herpesvirus.

Alenquer virus (ALEV) A serotype of Candiru virus in the genus Phlebovirus in the Candiru antigenic group.

Aleutian disease virus See Aleutian mink disease virus.

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) A

species in the genus Parvovirus. Causes an economically important, lethal disease in ranch-raised mink. All types of mink are susceptible, but the Aleutian genotype, so named because the blue-gray coat color is similar to that of the Aleutian blue fox, develop more severe lesions and die sooner. Ferrets are also susceptible. The virus can cross the placenta to infect the fetus, but chronically infected females produce few live kits. Animals infected in utero have a less severe disease than those infected after birth. Virus is excreted in the urine, feces and saliva, and infection is readily transmitted by contact and handling. After infection there is rapid replication and high virus titers are present in spleen, liver and lymph nodes within 10 days. A

proportion of non-Aleutian mink clear the virus and develop no disease. A chronic infection occurs in the majority and high antibody levels develop resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia. Viremia persists for months. Virus-antibody complexes are formed and deposited in the tissues, producing glomerulonephritis, the usual cause of death, as well as arteritis of the coronary, hepatic, gastrointestinal and cerebral vessels. There is a systematic plasmacy-tosis involving bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidneys. Ferrets and skunks can be infected experimentally, but not rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or mice. Human infection is doubtful, although it would be prudent to handle the virus with caution. Replication in tissue culture is doubtful. Virion diameter is 23nm, density 1.29-1.41g/ml in CsCl. It is more resistant to heat than most, 60°C for 30min causing only partial inactivation. Resistant to lipid solvents and desoxy-cholate. Passes through a filter of average pore diameter 50nm. Control of the disease can be obtained by killing all hyperglobulinemic animals. Synonym: Aleutian disease virus.

Alexandersen S et al (1988) J Virol 62, 1495 Parrish CR (1990) Adv Virus Res 38, 403 Porter DD et al (1980) Adv Immun 29, 261

Alexander cells A human hepatoma-derived cell line, PLC/PRF/5, that carries the Hepatitis B virus genome and secretes hepatitis B surface antigen.

Alexander J et al (1978) Persp Virol 10, 103

Alfuy virus (ALFV) A serotype of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in the genus Flavivirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. Not reported to cause disease, but antibodies to it or to a closely related virus are common in humans in Northern Queensland.

alkaline phosphatase An enzyme with an optimum pH above 8.0, which removes the 5' terminal phosphate from a wide variety of phosphate esters, including linear DNA molecules.

Allerton virus Synonym for Bovine herpesvirus 2.

Almeirim virus (ALMV)

Almeirim virus (ALMV) A serotype of Changuinola virus in the genus Orbivirus belonging to the Changuinola virus serogroup. Isolated from Lutzomyia mosquitoes.

Almpiwar virus (ALMV) An unassigned rhabdovirus. Isolated from a skink, Ablepharus boutonii virgatus, in Northern Queensland, Australia. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Alphaherpesvirinae A subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Replicate rapidly, usually with CPE in fibroblasts in culture or epithelial cells in vivo. Many members cause vesicular epithelial lesions in their natural hosts. Latent infection is often demonstrable in nerve ganglia. Host range is very variable. DNA mol. wt. 85-110 x 106 (120-180kb). There are two unique sequences separated by other sequences which repeat in an inverted orientation. Genes homologous to Human herpesvirus 1 are found within the unique short sequence (Us) and flanking inverted repeats (Irs and TRs). Four genera are identified so far: Simplexvirus, Varicellovirus, 'Marek's disease-like viruses' and 'Infectious larynogotra-cheitis-like viruses'. The type species of the first is Human herpesvirus 1 and other species are herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1), Human herpesvirus 2 and Bovine herpesvirus 2. The type species of the second genus is Human herpesvirus 3 and other species are Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bubaline herpesvirus 1, Suid herpesvirus 1 and Equid herpesvirus 4. The type species of the third genus is Gallid herpesvirus 2 and the fourth is Gallid herpesvirus 1 . Other probable species in the subfamily include equid herpesviruses 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9, Felid herpesvirus 1, macropodid herpesviruses 1 and 2, cercopithecine her-pesviruses 2, 6, 7 and 9, Canid herpesvirus 1, and psittacid herpesvirus 1. Synonym: herpes simplex virus group. Roizman B et al (1992) Arch Virol 123, 425

alpha interferon A class of human interferon produced primarily by leukocytes following stimulation by viruses. The biologically active molecule consists of 166 amino acids. Alpha interferon is used as a treatment for hairy cell leukemia and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. It is also moderately effective as a treatment for chronic infection with hepatitis viruses B and C. Synthetic alpha interferon is now produced in various forms by recombinant DNA technology for drug use. Encoded in chromosome 9. At least 20 genes and 9 pseudogenes encoding alpha interferon have been cloned.

Pestka S et al (1987) Annu Rev Biochem 56, 727

Alpharetrovirus A genus in the family Retroviridae that includes avian retro-viruses. The type species is Avian leukosis virus. Virus particles have a C-type morphology. The genome is 7.2kb in length (one monomer), with four genes: gag, pro, pol and env. The LTR is U3-250, R-20, U5-80nt in size. Many members of the genus contain additional transduced oncogenes. The natural host range is restricted to birds, although some will infect mammalian cells experimentally. It has been suggested that avian leukosis viruses can be divided into three groups: (1) sarcoma viruses, e.g. Rous sarcoma virus and Fujinami sarcoma virus; (2) avian lym-phoid leukemia viruses, e.g. resistance-inducing factors and Rous-associated viruses; and (3) avian acute leukemia viruses, e.g. Avian myeloblastosis virus and avian erythroblastosis virus. Synonym: 'Avian type C retroviruses'.

Payne LN and Purchase HG (1991) In Diseases of Poultry, Ninth edition, edited by BW Calnek et al. Ames: Iowa State University Press, p. 386

Alphaviridae A misnomer - alphaviruses form a genus, Alphavirus, in the family


Alphavirus A genus in the family Togaviridae, the type species of which is Sindbis virus. All species in this genus multiply in mosquitoes as well as in vertebrates. All are serologically related to each other but not to other members of the family. The HAI test is best for demonstrating an antigenic relationship between members of the genus and the CF test or neutralization test for differentiating between members. Cause encephalitis on i.c. injection in suckling mice. The type species is Sindbis virus. There are 24 species, as listed in Table A1.

Calisher CH et al (1980) Intervirology 14, 229 Kielian M (1995) Adv Virus Res 45, 113


Strauss JH and Strauss EG (1994) Microbiol Rev 58, 491

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