Amplified reverse transcriptase AmpRT

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An ultrasensitive detection method for the presence of the enzyme, reverse tran-scriptase, which depends upon PCR-amplification of the DNA product of the enzyme.

amyloid A pathologic extracellular pro-teinaceous substance which is deposited in the form of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues in amyloi-dosis, affecting vital functions.

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) A devastating motor neuron disease first discovered in 1869, involving degeneration of upper motor neurons in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. Can be familial, but 90% of cases appear to be sporadic. Little is known of the etiology, but it was reported that enterovirus RNA sequences related to echovirus 7 are present in spinal cord neurons of patients with the disease.

Berger HH et al (2000) Neurology 54, 20

AN 20410 virus A strain of Mopeia virus in the genus Arenavirus.

AN 21366 virus A strain of Mopeia virus in the genus Arenavirus.

ana1-ana2 Serotype designation given to the fowl adenovirus 1 derived from the duck, Anas domestica.

analytical ultracentrifuge

analytical ultracentrifuge Instrument used to sediment macromolecules at high centrifugal force with appropriate optics so that the rates of sedimentation and diffusion of macromolecules can be measured with great accuracy.

Markham R (1962) Adv Virus Res 9, 241

Ananindeua virus (ANUV) A strain of

Guama virus in the genus Bunyavirus belonging to the Guama serogroup. Isolated in Para, Brazil from the woolly opossum, Caluromys philander. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Anapu virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.

anatid herpesvirus 1 (AnHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Differs from other her-pesviruses with respect to its structure and maturation. Mature virus particles are seen accumulated in long extensions of the endoplasmic reticulum; their size varies between 160 and 380nm, and they are embedded in an osmiophilic matrix. In addition, capsids (about 80nm in diameter) and developmental stages of the viral nucleoid (about 40nm in diameter) are encountered in the nuclei of infected cells. A natural infection in domestic ducks, and possibly of mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, in the UK. There is nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea, with up to 97% mortality. At post-mortem examination petechial bleedings in mucosal membranes and many organs are prevalent. In less acute cases hemorrhagic or pseudomembra-nous pharyngitis, esophagitis and cloacitis are frequently observed. Typical herpesvirus particles are observed by electron microscopy in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of infected cells which are of diagnostic relevance. Only ducks, geese, swans and day-old chicks can be infected experimentally. The virus can be cultivated on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), killing the embryo in 4 days. Can be adapted to replicate in chick fibroblast cultures, but loses virulence. Attenuated virus vaccine is effective in control of the disease.

Synonyms: anserid herpesvirus 1; duck enteritis virus; duck plague herpesvirus.

Proctor SJ (1976) Arch Virol 50, 83

anchorage dependence Growth of normal fibroblasts or epithelial cells in culture which requires attachment to a glass or plastic surface in order to divide. Such cells will not grow in liquid or semisolid suspension. This property can be used to distinguish normal from virus-transformed cells, which will grow in suspension in semisolid media, such as soft agar.

Freedman VH and Shin S (1974) Cell 3, 355

Andasibe virus (ANDV) A tentative species in the genus Orbivirus. The Perinet virus was isolated from the same area and Andasibe is the Malagasy name of the locality, so they could be one and the same virus.

Clerc Y et al (1984) Arch Inst Pasteur, Madagascar 51, 135

Andes virus (ANDV) A species in the genus Hantavirus which caused fatal human pulmonary disease in south-western Argentina. Genetically distinct from, though related to, Sin Nombre virus. The presumed rodent reservoir is Oligoryzomys longicaudatus.

Lopez N et al (1996) Virology 220, 223

angelfish herpesvirus Herpesvirus-like particles were observed in sick South American angelfish, Pterophyllum altum, imported to Denmark. Virus isolation has not been reported.

Mellergard S and Bloch B (1988) Dis Aquat Org 5,151

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