Antheraea cells, adapted (CCL 80) This cell line was derived from the ovarian tissues of the moth, Antheraea eucalypti, and constituted the first true line of arthropod cells established in cell culture. Because of the difficulty and expense in obtaining significant volumes of lepidopteran hemolymph, the Antheraea cells were adapted to hemolymph-free culture medium. The adapted Antheraea cells are able to support the growth of a number of arboviruses.
anthroponosis A disease which is spread from humans to humans.
antibiotic Substance used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Many different antibiotics are now available. Their principal application in virology is to prevent bacterial and fungal growth in tissue culture media used for the cultivation of cells and growth of viruses.
antibody An immunoglobulin molecule produced by lymphocytes following administration of a foreign protein or carbohydrate (antigen) into a vertebrate host. The induced antibody reacts specifically with the administered antigen. In virology, antibodies are frequently used antibody
as a means of discriminating between different viruses using a range of serological techniques including virus neutralization, immunodiffusion, complement fixation, ELISA or Western blotting. Antibodies can belong to several different classes, e.g. IgM, IgG and IgA (secretory antibody). See immunoglobulin.
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) Specific killing of a target cell by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells in the presence of antibody. CTLs usually recognize a foreign (e.g. virus-induced) protein and are restricted by MHC proteins. Following recognition, the CTL releases molecules such as perforin which cause lysis of the target cell. NK cells attach to antibody coating the target cell membrane via Fc receptors, and release toxin causing target cell death. NK cells can also lyze uninfected cells bearing Fc receptors in the presence of antibody to the T cell receptor.
anticodon A group of three consecutive bases in a tRNA molecule which recognizes a codon in an mRNA molecule. The bases pair in an antiparallel manner: A with U and G with C, at least as far as the first two bases in the codon are concerned. The pairing with the third base is more complicated as one tRNA can recognize several codons provided they differ only in the last place. This is the 'wobble' hypothesis which states that a certain amount of variation or 'wobble' is tolerated in the third nucleotide of the codon.
antigen Molecule of carbohydrate or protein which stimulates the production of an antibody, with which it reacts specifically.
antigen-antibody complex A macromolec-ular complex of antigen and antibody molecules specifically bound together. Important in pathogenesis of immune complex diseases such as serum sickness or glomerulonephritis.
antigen-antibody reaction The specific interaction between an antigen and an antibody which recognizes a structural feature of the antigen and binds to it. This reaction can be measured by a variety of serological methods. See complement fixation test, ELISA, immunodiffusion, neutralization, precipitin, radioimmuno-precipitation, and Western blotting.
antigenemia Presence of circulating viral antigen in the bloodstream.
antigenic determinant The portion of an antigen which is recognized by the active site of an antibody.
antigenic drift The appearance of a virus with slightly changed antigenicity after frequent passage in the natural host. This is presumably due to selection of mutants under pressure of the immune response. Commonly described in influenza virus infections, but also observed with many other viruses.
Synonym: immunological drift.
antigenic modulation Disappearance of membrane proteins from the surface of a cell after combination with specific antibodies, due to internalization of the complexed molecules.
antigenic shift A sudden and major change in the antigenicity of a virus resulting from genetic recombination (gene re-assortment). Most likely to occur in viruses with segmented genomes, but only reported in Influenza virus A to date. Occurred in 1957 when Asian influenza appeared, and again in 1968 when Hong Kong influenza appeared.
antigenic site The portion of a protein which reacts with the antibody induced in response to the entire antigen. A complex antigen (e.g. a protein) will contain several antigenic sites. Also termed 'epitope'.
antigenic variation Altered antigenicity resulting from genetic changes in a virus population which lead to resistance to neutralization by antibodies.
antigenome The complementary positive RNA strand on which is made the negative-strand genome of viruses of the order Mononegavirales such as parainfluenza virus type 1 murine.
anti-H Bc Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.
Aphthovirus anti-H Be Antibody to hepatitis B e antigen.
anti-H Bs Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen.
anti-idiotypes Antibodies resulting from immunization with a specific antibody (e.g. antiviral antibody). The resulting anti-idiotype antibody can have a conformation which mimics the original antigen, and so can be used itself to immunize and may induce neutralizing antibodies against the original virus. Such anti-idiotype antibodies should provide a non-infectious antigenic mass which could form the basis of a vaccine. Although protection has been demonstrated experimentally, no anti-idiotype vaccines have yet been developed.
antimessage Viral RNA which is negativestrand and cannot act as mRNA. It is transcribed by a viral transcriptase to a positive-strand which functions as mRNA. The genome of negative-strand viruses and Delta virus is an antimessage molecule.
antireceptor Virion surface protein which binds specifically to a cell surface receptor. See hemagglutination.
antisense oligonucleotides Oligonucleotides synthesized to represent the complementary strand to the coding strand (mRNA strand). Candidates for possible use as inhibitors of virus replication since they can hybridize to the virus mRNA and prevent its expression.
antisense RNA RNA which is complementary (opposite sense) to a given mRNA, and may interfere with its expression.
Simons RW and Kleckner N (1983) Cell 34, 683
antiserum The serum from a vertebrate which has been exposed to an antigen and which contains antibodies that react specifically with the antigen.
antiviral agent A chemical compound which inhibits virus replication.
antiviral chemotherapy Treatment of virus diseases using drugs which inhibit or prevent virus replication.
Synonym: herpesvirus aotus 1 and 3. Ebeling A et al (1983) J Virol 47, 421
aotine herpesvirus 2 (AoHV-2) A strain of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) isolated from a kidney cell culture of an owl monkey, Aotus trivergatus. Does not cross-react serologically with aotine herpesviruses 1 or 3. Restriction endonuclease and anti-genic studies indicate that it is a bovine virus, perhaps picked up as a contaminant of owl monkey kidney cell cultures or an isolate from an owl monkey accidentally infected with BHV-4.
Barahona HH et al (1973) J Infect Dis 127, 171 Bublot M et al (1991) J Gen Virol 72, 715
apelin A peptide which binds to an HIV co-receptor, APJ, and inhibits HIV replication. See APJ.
Apeu virus (APEUV) A strain of Carapura virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging serologically to the C group viruses. Isolated from the woolly opossum, Caluromys philander, the murine opossum, Marmosa cinerea, sentinel Cebus monkeys and mice. Also from mosquitoes in Para, Brazil. Has been associated with a few cases of febrile illness in humans.
aphidicolin A cyclic compound isolated from the fungus, Cephalosporum aphidi-cola, which inhibits cellular DNA polymerase alpha and DNA polymerases of vaccinia and herpesviruses.
Bucknall RA (1973) Antimicrob Ag Chemother 4, 294
de Filippes FM (1984) J Virol 52, 474
aphthous fever virus Synonym for Foot-and-mouth disease virus.
aphthovirus Synonym for Foot-and-mouth disease virus.
Aphthovirus A genus of the family Picornaviridae. Unstable below pH 6.5. Buoyant density in CsCl: 1.43-1.45g/ml. Poly C tracts occur about 360 bases from
the 5' terminus of genome RNA. Three species of genome-linked protein (VPg) are encoded. All species of virus share more than 50% sequence identity over the entire genome. Type species Foot-and-mouth disease virus O.
APJ A seven-transmembrane protein which is a coreceptor for HIV found on nerve cells. A homolog of the angiotensin receptor. The natural ligand of APJ, termed apelin, specifically inhibits the replication of HIV-1 virus in cells bearing APJ.
Cayabyab M et al (2000) J Virol 74, 11972
Apoi virus (APOIV) A species in the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Modoc virus group. Isolated from healthy rodents, Apodemus speciosus ainu and A. argentus hokkaidi, on the foothills of Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. There is one report of infection in a laboratory worker who developed encephalitis.
Apollo virus Synonym for enterovirus 70. A name given to the virus isolated in central W Africa from the first group of cases of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Named Apollo disease after the first Apollo-Saturn 11 mooncraft landing which took place about the same time, in 1969.
apoptosis Mechanism by which many viruses induce cell death; transforming viruses encode proteins that inhibit cellular apoptotic pathways. Plays a major role in viral infections and in the host response to them. CTLs, NK cells, and cytotoxic cytokines all kill virus-infected target cells through apoptotic pathways. In the infected host, T-lym-phocyte apoptosis plays a role in the natural history of the T cell responses to viral infection. The immune response is silenced by the physiological elimination of lymphocytes by apoptosis, and an overzealous elimination can lead to viral persistence.
Razvi ES and Welsh RM (1995) Adv Virus Res 45, 1
Shen Y and Shenk TE (1995) Curr Opin Genet Dev 5, 105
apoptin A 13.6 kDa protein encoded by Chicken anemia virus which induces apop-tosis.
Danen-van Oorschot AAAM et al (2000) J Virol 74, 7072
Aquabirnavirus A genus in the family Birnaviridae containing virus species which only infect fish, mollusks and crustaceans. Isolated from a variety of aquatic animals, sometimes in the absence of disease. The type species is Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, which causes disease in a variety of salmonid fish as well as Japanese eels. Another virus in the genus is yellowtail ascites virus.
Aquareovirus A genus in the family Reoviridae comprising at least six species (A to F) infecting fresh as well as seawa-ter fish and some marine invertebrates such as clams and oysters. The genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (three large, three medium and five small) ranging in length from 0.8 to 3.8kb. On the basis of RNA-RNA hybridization, six genogroups are currently recognized. The type species, Aquareovirus A, includes at least 10 viruses which affect fish and oysters. Aquareoviruses have been isolated from wide geographic areas, and at least five different viruses cause economically important diseases of finfish: the golden shiner, grass carp, smelt, angelfish and grouper reoviruses. Most of the viruses replicate well in fish cell lines.
Hetrick FM and Hedrick RP (1993) Annu Rev Fish Dis, 187
Aquareoviruses A-F (ARV-A-ARV-F) The six species in the genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae, are recognized as distinct based on RNA-RNA hybridization. It is assumed that the members of a single species are able to exchange genetic information by reassortment during mixed infection. Species A includes members isolated from angelfish, Atlantic salmon, Chinook salmon, Chum salmon, Masou salmon, smelt, striped bass and American oysters; Species B includes isolates from Chinook salmon and Coho salmon; Species C, D and E have one isolate each, from golden shiner, Channel catfish and turbot, respectively; and species F has isolates from Coho salmon and Chum salmon. There are also tentative species in the genus isolated from Chub, grass carp, hard clam, landlocked salmon and tench.
AR 86 virus A strain of Sindbis virus.
AR 339 virus A strain of Sindbis virus.
ara A See adenine arabinoside.
9-ß-D-arabinofuranosyladenine See adenine arabinoside.
1-ß-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine hydrochloride See cytarabine hydrochloride.
1-ß-D-arabinofuranosylthymidine See spongothymidine.
1-ß-D-arabinofuranosyluracil See spon-gouridine.
arabinosyl adenine See adenine arabi-noside.
arabinosyl cytosine See cytarabine hydrochloride.
ara C See cytarabine hydrochloride.
Araqai virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.
Aragao's myxoma virus A strain of Myxoma virus from the South American tapeti, Lepus brasiliensis.
Araguari virus (ARAV) An unassigned virus isolated from a Philander oppos-sum in 1969 at Serra do Navio, Brazil. Virions are enveloped. Pathogenic for certain laboratory vertebrates and cell cultures. Eight RNA species. Three major polypeptides (67 kDa, 58 kDa, 30 KDa;1:2:3), two minor polypeptides (43.5 kDa); 67 kDa and 30 kDa proteins appear to be glycoproteins (i.e. not similar to are-naviruses).
Zeller HG et al (1989) Arch Virol 108, 191
Aransas Bay virus (ABV) An unassigned tentative species in the family Bunyaviridae, serologically related to Upolu virus. Isolated from Ornithodorus capensis in Texas, USA. Not known to cause disease in humans.
Araraquara virus (ARAV) An unclassified virus in the genus Hantavirus isolated from a woman with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome who lived in Araraquara, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The rodent host of this virus is unknown.
Johnson AM et al (1999) J Med Virol 59, 527
ara T See spongothymidine.
Aratau virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.
ara U See spongouridine.
Arawete virus A probable member of the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.
Arbia virus (ARBV) A serotype of Salehabad virus in the genus Phlebovirus, belonging to the Rift Valley fever complex. Isolated from Phlebotomus perniciosus from Toscana, Italy. Not known to cause disease in humans.
Arboledas virus (ADSV) A tentative species in the genus Phlebovirus belonging to the sandfly fever antigenic group. Isolated from Lutzomyia spp from Norte de Santander, Colombia. Not known to cause disease in humans.
Tesh RB et al (1986) Am J Trop Med Hyg 35, 1310
Arboviridae Old name (no longer used) for a family encompassing the Flaviviridae and Togaviridae families.
arbovirus A term (Arthropod-borne virus) used to describe any virus of vertebrates which is transmitted by an arthropod. For inclusion in the catalog of arboviruses they must be: (1) isolated from a vertebrate and shown to be infectious to an arthropod; (2) isolated from an arthropod and shown to be pathogenic to a vertebrate, e.g. mice; or (3) isolated from a vertebrate or an arthropod and shown to be antigenically related to an established arbovirus. A number of antigenic groups have been designated. An antigenic group is created arbovirus
when a newly discovered virus can be shown to be serologically related to, but clearly distinguishable from, a previously isolated arbovirus. The original groups were A, B and C but now new groups take the name of the first-discovered member of the group. Groups A and B form the genera Alphavirus and Flavivirus, respectively, of the families Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. Other arboviruses belong to the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae (genus Orbivirus) and Rhabdoviridae. A few are unclassified and there is one virus in each of the taxa Iridoviridae, Paramyxoviridae and Poxviridae. The name 'arbovirus' is not accepted as a legitimate taxonomic term since it has no relevance to chemistry, morphology or mode of viral replication.
Karabatsos N (1978) Am J Trop Med Hyg 27, Suppl. 372
Arbroath virus (ABRV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Great Island antigenic complex. Isolated from a pool of ticks, Ixodes uriae, found on a dead puffin, Fratercula articula, in Arbroath, Scotland in 1978.
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