Aseptic lymphocytic choriomeningitis

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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

aseptic meningitis Meningitis in which the raised cell count in the CSF is predominantly lymphocytic, and the protein level is only moderately raised (80-120mg/ml). Most commonly caused by a viral infection, but the term is not synonymous with viral meningitis because the condition may be caused by leptospirosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cryptococcosis, infiltration of the meninges with malignant or granulomatous tissue, cerebral abscess and meningeal infiltration in collagen disease, or following the introduction of drugs or contrast media. The common viral causes are enteroviruses, Mumps virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and arboviruses. Enteroviruses of most types have been isolated from cases of aseptic meningitis. Outbreaks have been associated with echovirus 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 25, 27, 30, 33, coxsackie virus A7, A9, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, and enterovirus 71.

Asfarviridae (Sigla: African swine fever and related) A family consisting of one genus Asfivirus. The family description corresponds to the genus description.

Asfivirus A genus with only one species, African swine fever virus, in the family Asfarviridae. Viruses consist of a nucleo-protein 70-100nm in diameter, surrounded by internal lipid layers and an icosahedral capsid, 200 nm in diameter. The DNA genome is linear, covalently closed-ended double-stranded DNA, 170-190kb in length, encoding 150-200 proteins. Virus replication occurs in swine macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Virus morphogenesis takes place in virus factories. Domestic and wild swine are the only natural hosts, but soft ticks of the genus Ornithodorus are also infected, and probably maintain the virus in nature. Virus can be transmitted in ticks transstadially, transovarially and sexually. Warthogs, bushpigs and swine can be infected by bites from infected ticks. The disease is endemic in many African countries and in Sardinia.

Asian influenza virus The cause of the 1957 influenza pandemic. See Influenza A virus.

Asibi virus The original virulent strain of Yellow fever virus from which the first attenuated vaccine strain was derived.

asinine herpesvirus 1 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 6.

asinine herpesvirus 2 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 7.

asinine herpesvirus 3 Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 8.

assembly During virus replication, the formation of mature virions from component nucleic acid and proteins.

Assurinis virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.

Astra virus An isolate of Dhori virus made from the tick, Hyalomma plumbeum, and the mosquito, Anopheles hyrcanus, in the former USSR.

Butenko AM and Chumakov MP (1971) Aka Med Nauk SSR Part 2,11, 1

Astroviridae A family containing a single genus Astrovirus. Virions are spherical, 28-30nm in diameter, and non-enveloped. The genome is positive sense, single-stranded RNA, of length 6.8-7.9kb. At least eight serotypes of human astroviruses have been defined by immunoelectron microscopy and neutralization tests, and confirmed as genotypes. Astroviruses have also been described from a wide variety of mammals and birds.

Monroe SS (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 104 Noel J et al (1995) J Clin Microbiol 33, 797

Astrovirus The only genus in the family Astroviridae, the type species of which is Human astrovirus 1. Named because some of the virus particles seen by electron microscopy in the feces of infants and patients with diarrhea have a distinctive five- or six-pointed star on the surface. Virions are 28-30nm in diameter, spherical and without an envelope. Density (CsCl): 1.36-1.39g/ml. The genome is positive-sense single-stranded RNA, 6.8-7.9kb in length, with a 3' poly A tract which is infectious. A subgenomic polyadenylated RNA, 2.8kb in length, has been found in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using immunoelectron microscopy and neutralization tests, at least eight serotypes of Human astrovirus and two serotypes of Bovine astrovirus have been defined. There are also species detected in feces from cats, ducks, pigs, sheep and turkeys. Human and porcine isolates have been adapted to growth in cell lines, in the presence of trypsin. The disease associated with astrovirus infection in humans is an acute gastroenteritis which is self-limiting.

Carter MJ and Willcocks MM (1996) Arch Virol 12 (suppl), 227

Lee TW and Kurtz JB (1994) Epidemiol Infect 112, 187

Willcocks MM et al (1992) Rev Med Virol 2, 97 Willcocks MM et al (1994) J Gen Virol 75, 1785

Atadenovirus Name for a proposed new genus in the family Adenoviridae, which would accommodate certain avian, bovine and ovine adenoviruses which have a different genome organization from members of the Mastadenovirus and Aviadenovirus genera. The proposed name reflects the high AT-content, which may be up to 65% AT in some regions of the DNA. See also duck adenovirus 1.

Benko M and Harrach B (1998) Arch Virol 143/4, 829

ataxia of cats virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

Ateline herpesvirus 1 (AtHV-1) A species in the genus Simplexvirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, isolated from a fatal infection of a 5-month-old female spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, born in a Californian zoo. The virus kills suckling mice and marmosets on inoculation. Synonym: spider monkey herpesvirus.

Hull RN et al (1972) J Natl Cancer Inst 49, 225

Ateline herpesvirus 2 (AtHV-2) A species in the genus Rhadinovirus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, which infects spider monkeys.

Synonym: herpes ateles 2.

Melendez LV et al (1972) Nature (New Biol) 235, 182

ateline herpesvirus 3 (AtHV-3) An unas-signed member of the family Herpesviridae. Originally isolated from a cell culture of kidney tissue from a Guatemalan spider monkey, Ateles geof-froyi, which developed characteristic herpes-type CPE. Four isolates from peripheral lymphocytes of Colombian spider monkeys, Ateles fusciceps robustus, are antigenically slightly different. The virus appears to be a natural, horizontally transmitted infection of spider monkeys in which it rarely, if ever, causes disease. It is very similar in behavior to cebid herpesvirus 2 causing lymphoma-tous neoplasms in marmosets, owl monkeys and other species. Marmoset lymphocytes are transformed by it in vitro and the transformed cells have T-cell markers.

Synonym: herpesvirus ateles strain 73.

Deinhardt FW et al (1974) Adv Cancer Res 19, 167

Falk L et al (1978) Int J Cancer 21, 652 Luetzeler J et al (1979) Arch Virol 60, 59

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