Baby hamster kidney cells See BHK21 cells

Bacajai virus A virus in the genus Orbivirus isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.

bacilliform Description of the shape of certain virus particles which are cylindrical with two rounded ends.

bacteriocinogen A plasmid DNA present in certain strains of bacteria, which specifies production of a bacteriocin. Normally the bacteriocinogen is repressed, and the cell carrying it does not produce bacteriocin. The circumstances in which derepression occurs are complex and not completely understood.

Hardy KG (1975) Bacteriol Rev 39, 464

bacteriocins Protein substances of varying complexity released by some types of bacteria which kill bacteria of certain strains within the same species. The producing strain is generally immune to the effects of its own bacteriocins. When purified, bacteriocins seem to fall into two classes: some are simple proteins or proteins associated with cell wall components; others resemble bacteriophages or fragments of them. Bacteriocin formation is due to a bacteriocinogen in the cell, which is normally repressed and behaves like a defective prophage. Bacteriocins adsorb to specific receptors on the cell wall, and bacterial mutants which lack these receptors may arise and will be resistant. The potency of bacteriocins is exceedingly high, and in several cases it has been shown that the lethal action is mediated without penetration of the cell. Some bacteriocins appear to be enzymes which cause cell lysis.

Day M (1998) In Bacteriology, vol. 2 of Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections. Ninth edition, edited by A Balows and BI Duerden. London: Arnold, p. 185

bacteriophage A virus which replicates inside a bacterium.

baculovirus expression vector A gene expression system which utilizes a strong promoter found in baculoviruses to obtain high-level expression of foreign genes. The baculovirus vector uses the highly expressed and regulated poly-hedrin promoter modified for the insertion of foreign genes. The bac-ulovirus used is usually Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). One of the major advantages of this invertebrate virus expression vector over bacterial, yeast and mammalian expression systems is the abundant expression of proteins coded by the inserted gene. In addition, recombinant proteins produced in insect cells with baculovirus vectors are biologically active and, for the most part, appear to undergo post-translational processing to produce gene products with similar properties to the authentic proteins.

Bacuri virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus serogroup.

Bagaza virus (BAGV) A species in the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Ntaya virus subgroup. Isolated in suckling mice from a pool of Culex mosquitoes collected from humans at Bagaza, Central African Republic. Has also been found in Cameroon and Senegal. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Bahia Grande virus (BGV) An unassigned species in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from Aedes sollicitans. With Muir Springs and Reed Ranch forms the Bahia Grande serogroup.

Bahig virus (BAHV) A serotype of Tete virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Tete antigenic virus group. Isolated from birds in Egypt and Italy. Serological surveys suggest presence in Cyprus and Israel. Not reported to cause human disease.

Bakau virus (BAKV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus. With Ketapang, Nola, Tanjong Rabok and Telok Forest viruses forms the Bakau serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in Malaysia and Pakistan. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Bakel virus (BAKV) A strain of Qalyub virus in the genus Nairovirus, isolated from ticks. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Baku virus (BAKUV) A serotype of Chenuda virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from a tick, Ornithodoros capen-sis. Antibodies found in nestlings of a gull, Larus argentatus, on Glinyanyi Island in the Caspian Sea. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

balano-posthitis virus of sheep A possible species in the genus Parapoxvirus causing venereal infection in sheep in America. It can cause ulcerative dermatitis as well as balanitis and ulcerative vulvitis. Similar disease pictures are reported from Australia, S Africa and UK. They may be caused by a variant of Orf virus but the relationships of these viruses to other parapoxviruses require study. Synonyms: ulcerative dermatosis of sheep; pizzle rot; foul sheath.

Trueblood MS (1966) Cornell Vet 56, 521

BALB/c (Mo) mice A strain of mice derived from a pre-implantation embryo infected with Moloney leukemia virus. They have the viral DNA transmitted as a single Mendelian gene. Heterozygous animals have one copy of the viral DNA in each diploid cell, homozygous individuals have two. Infective virus is produced in their tissues and 90% of the mice develop thymus-derived lymphomas before they are 10 months old.

Jaenisch R (1976) Proc Natl Acad Sci 73, 1260

BALB/3T3 cells (CCL 163) Heteroploid fibroblast cell line developed as 3T3 cells, but from disaggregated 14- to 17-day-old embryos of inbred BALB/c mice. Exhibit low saturation density, are extremely sensitive to contact inhibition, grow at high dilution, and are highly susceptible to transformation by the oncogenic DNA virus SV40 and mouse sarcoma virus. Do not form tumors on injection into weanling irradiated BALB/c mice whereas 3T12-B cells do. Also known as 3T3-B cells.

BALB/3T12-3 cells (CCL 164) This is one of several cell lines developed from a pool of disaggregated 14- to 17-day-old BALB/c mouse embryos. The cells are extremely insensitive to contact inhibition, exhibit a high saturation density, are tumorigenic, and are susceptible to transformation in tissue culture by the oncogenic DNA virus SV40. The cell line has been used in studies relating to in vitro properties associated with tumori-genicity and contact inhibition.

Balbina virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phleboto-

Banna virus (China-HN191) (BAV-HN191V)

mine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus group.

bald eagle herpesvirus Synonym for accip-trid herpesvirus 1.

Balkan nephropathy virus Virus particles morphologically resembling coron-aviruses seen in sections of kidney tissue from human cases of a slowly progressive kidney disease. This disease occurs only in the Balkans, mainly Bulgaria, and is rare in Muslims. Virus antigen in tissue sections reacts with patients' serum, but does not react with pig or bird coron-avirus antiserum.

Apostolov K et al (1975) Lancet ii, 1271

Ballina virus Synonym for Australian bat lyssavirus.

Baltimore virus A virus isolated in 1942 from four nursery outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Caused severe diarrhea in calves. Diameter 40-80nm. Examination of feces from these calves and infants 32 years later showed the presence of rotavirus-like particles.

Hodes HL (1977) Am J Dis Child 131, 729

Bamble disease This disease was first described in 1872 in Norway, and takes its name from the village in which it was prevalent. There is an incubation period of 2-4 days followed by sudden onset, with 'stitch-like' pain in chest, epigastrium, abdomen and more rarely, the limb muscles, accompanied by fever, headache, coughing and hiccough. May be caused by coxsackie viruses types B1-6, A4, 6, 9 and 10, or echovirus types 4, 6 and 9. The first N American outbreak was described in 1888 by Dabney, whose name was officially bestowed on the disease in the USA in 1923. The Bornholm outbreak was not described until 1932. Synonyms: Bornholm disease; Dabney's grippe or grip; devil's clutch; devil's grippe or grip; epidemic myalgia; pleu-rodynia; Taarbaek disease.

banded krait herpesvirus Synonym for elapid herpesvirus 1.

Bandia virus (BDAV) A serotype of Qalyub virus in the genus Nairovirus. With Bakel, Omo and Qalyub viruses forms the Qalyub serogroup. Isolated from mice and ticks of Ornithodoros sp from the Bandia Forest, Senegal. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Bangoran virus (BGNV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from the mosquito, Culex perfuscus, and the Kurrichane thrush, Turdus liboyanus, in the Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Bangor virus A strain of Avian paramyxovirus 2. Isolated from a finch in Northern Ireland. Antigenically related to, but distinct from, Yucaipa virus. A similar virus has been isolated from a parrot.

Collings DF et al (1975) Res Vet Sci 19, 219 McFerran JB et al (1974) Arch Ges Virusforsch 46, 281

Bangui virus (BGIV) An unassigned member of the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from a man with fever, headache and rash in Bangui, Central African Republic.

Banna virus (BAV) A species in subgroup B of the genus Coltivirus, related to Kadipiro virus. Originally isolated in Yunnan Province, China from the cere-brospinal fluids and sera of patients with febrile illness and encephalitis. Isolates have also been made from mosquitoes, ticks and some domestic animals in southern China, and from mosquitoes in Indonesia. The virus appears to be widespread in South-East Asia, but determination of the exact relationships between the various isolates will require further genetic and anti-genic analyses.

Brown SE et al (1993) Virology 196, 363 Xu P et al (1990) Chin J Virol 6, 27

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