Compounds reported to inhibit replication of Human herpesvirus 1 and Vaccinia virus in chick embryo cultures. Infection of rabbit skin or eye with Vaccinia virus could be prevented or reduced in severity by treatment with the drugs.

Garcia-Gancedo A et al (1979) Chemotherapy 25, 83

Bermejo virus A strain of Andes virus in the genus Hantavirus. Isolated from rodents, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, in north-west Argentina. Genetically related to Lechiguanas virus.

Berne virus (BEV) See Equine torovirus.

Berrimah virus (BRMV) A species in the genus Ephemerovirus. Isolated in 1981 from healthy sentinel cattle, Bos taurus, in Australia. Antigenically related to Bovine ephemeral fever, Kimberley, Malakal and

Puchong viruses. Not known to be pathogenic.

Berry-Dedrick phenomenon An example of non-genetic reactivation. Rabbits infected with a mixture of heat-inactivated Myxoma virus and infectious Rabbit fibroma virus die of myxomatosis. It was thought to be an example of genetic cross-reactivation, but appears to result from use by the inactivated virus of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the active virus to make its own mRNA.

Berry GP and Dedrick HM (1936) J Bacteriol 31, 50

Bertioga virus (BERV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated in 1962 from sentinel mice in Bertioga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Betaherpesvirinae A subfamily of the family Herpesviridae. Nucleotide sequences of subfamily members form a distinct lineage within the family. Replicate relatively slowly remaining mainly cell-associated with spreading CPE. Cause enlargement of infected cells, hence the common name 'cytomegalovirus'. Latent infection in the salivary glands and other tissues is frequent. Large inclusion bodies ('owl eye' inclusions) containing DNA are often present in the nuclei and cytoplasm late in infection. The host range is usually narrow and they generally replicate best in fibroblasts. DNA mol. wt. 150 x 106, 240kb. G + C content 58%. Sequences from either or both termini may be present in an inverted form internally. Three genera are identified: Cytomegalovirus, Muromegalovirus and Roseolovirus. The type species of the first is Human her-pesvirus 5, the second Murid herpesvirus 1 and the third Human herpesvirus 6. Synonym: cytomegalovirus group.

Betaherpesviruses Cytomegalovirus-related viruses. See Betaherpesvirinae.

Betanodovirus A genus in the family Nodaviridae consisting of viruses isolated from juvenile marine fish which cause nervous necrosis. The type species is Striped jack nervous necrosis virus. Virions are spherical, non-enveloped 25-30 nm in diameter, containing a genome consisting of two molecules of positive sense single-stranded RNA, both of which lack poly A tails at their 3' ends. The sizes of the RNAs, both of which are required for replication, are 3.1 kb and 1.4 kb. Replication occurs in the cytoplasm and involves a third subgenomic RNA species 0.4 kb in length. The viruses cause significant problems in commercial fish hatcheries. Infected fish develop a vacuo-lating encephalopathy and retinopathy associated with behavioral abnormalities and high mortality. Viral antigens can be found in eggs, larvae and ovaries of hatchery-reared and wild spawner fish, suggesting that transmission of the virus is both horizontal and vertical.

Ball LA (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1026

P-propiolactone An organic solvent that can be used to prepare subunit preparations of virus antigens for use in tests such as complement fixation or hemag-glutination.

Hierholzer JC et al (1996) In Virology Methods Manual edited by BWJ Mahy and HO Kangro. London: Academic Press, p. 47

Betaretrovirus A genus in the family Retroviridae, the type species of which is Mouse mammary tumor virus. Virions exhibit a B-type morphology with prominent surface spike projections and an eccentric condensed core. Capsid assembly occurs within the cytoplasm to form A-type particles. The RNA genome, 10kb in length, is linked to the primer tRNALys-3. The LTR is about 1300 bases long, with the structure U3-1200, R-15, U5-120. Both exogenous and endogenous species are known. The genome contains the usual retroviral genes gag, pro, pol, and env plus (in MMTV only) an additional gene sag, located at the 3' end whose product functions as a superantigen. No members of the genus contain an oncogene. The known species in the genus are Mouse mammary tumor virus, Langur virus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus and Squirrel monkey retrovirus. Other members of the genus have a D-type morphology with less dense surface spikes and a cylindrical core.

Gardner MB et al (1994) In The Retroviridae, vol. 3, edited by JA Levy. New York: Plenum Press, p. 133

BeWo cells (CCL 98) This is the first human endocrine cell type to be maintained in continuous cultivation and was initiated from a malignant gestational choriocarci-noma of the fetal placenta.

BF-2 cells (CCL 91) The bluegill fry cell line was derived from a trypsinized suspension of pooled caudal portions of the trunk of 1-year-old fingerlings. Susceptible to Lymphocystis disease virus of fish and tadpole edema virus of frogs.

B14FAF28-G3 cells (CCL 14) This line of Chinese hamster cells was derived from normal peritoneal cells of an adult female hamster with a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma.

Bhanja virus (BHAV) An unassigned member of the family Bunyaviridae serologically related to Forecariah virus and Kismayo virus. Isolated from ticks in India, Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, the former Yugoslavia and Italy. Also from cattle, sheep, hedgehog and squirrel. Has been described in association with a febrile disease in humans.

Gaidamovich SY et al (1979) Intervirology 11, 288

BHK21 cells (CCL 10) Heteroploid cells derived from kidneys of five unsexed day-old Syrian or golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Used for poly-omavirus transformation, aphthovirus vaccine production, and replication studies of many viruses.

Stoker M and Macpherson I (1964) Nature 203, 1355

bicyclams Macrocyclic polyamines consisting of two linked units of cyclam (1,4,8,11-tetra-azacyclotetradecane) have been found to be potent selective inhibitors of HIV replication in vitro; they appear to inhibit the uncoating or fusion stages of infection.

de Clercq E et al (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci 89, 5285

big bone disease virus Synonym for osteopetrosis virus.

Bijou Bridge virus (BBV) A probable species in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from a mixed infection with Fort Morgan virus from the Cimicidae bug, Oeciacus vic-arius, in eastern Colorado, USA. Related to Cabassou virus, within the VEEV anti-genic complex.

Biken-1 virus Probably a strain of Seoul virus in the genus Hantavirus.

Bimbo virus (BBOV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from a healthy specimen of the Golden Bishop bird, Buplectes afer, in Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Bimiti virus (BIMV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Guama serogroup. Isolated from Culex spissipes in Trinidad. Also found in Brazil, Guinea and Surinam. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

bioassay Determination of the infectious titer of a virus by measuring its biological activity (e.g. infectivity for its host).

biological containment Reducing or eliminating the risk of viruses or other microorganisms escaping from the laboratory. Containment conditions usually involve reducing the laboratory air pressure so that it is negative with respect to the environment, passing exhaust air through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and sterilizing all fluid waste by boiling.

biological control Pest control agents of biological origin including parasites, predators and pathogens. Some viruses have been used as biological control agents, e.g. Myxoma virus and Rabbit hem-orrhagic disease virus for rabbit control and baculovirus for insect pest control.

biosafety Work with viruses infectious to humans poses a risk of laboratory-acquired infection. The currently accepted guidelines for biosafety and appropriate containment levels for various viruses can be found in Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, Fourth Edition (1999) edited by Richmond JW and McKinney RW.

Published by the US Department of Health and Human Services.

biotechnology Industrial processes requiring the use of biological systems, including genetic engineering, fermentation technology, hybridoma technology and agricultural technology.

biotin A small water-soluble macromole-cule (vitamin B complex) which is a coenzyme in carboxylation-decarboxyla-tion reactions. Used as a non-radioactive reporter group for labeling nucleic acid probes. It has a very high affinity for avidin (streptavidin) which, when coupled with an indicator molecule (enzyme, fluorescent dye), is used to detect biotin.

biphasic milk fever virus Synonym for Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

Birao virus (BIRV) A strain of Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Bunyamwera serogroup. Isolated from Anopheles pharoensis and A. squamo-sus in Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

bird papillomavirus Synonym for fringilla papillomavirus.

birdpox virus Synonym for Fowlpox virus.

Birnaviridae A family of viruses roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of 60nm, sedimenting at 650S and banding in CsCl at 1.33g/ml; there is no envelope. The icosahedral capsid is composed of four major polypeptides and contains a genome comprising two segments of linear double-stranded RNA, 3092 and 2784bp in length in Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, and 3129 and 2795bp in Infectious bursal disease virus. Both segments contain a 94kDa genome-linked protein. There are no poly A tracts at the 3' ends of the segments, and there is no evidence for 5' capping of any of the viral mRNAs. The family contains viruses infecting fish, chickens, insects and rotifers, and contains three genera, Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus and Entomobirnavirus.

Bayliss CD et al (1990) J Gen Virol 71, 1303 Dobos P (1995) Ann Rev Fish Dis 5, 25 Yamaguchi T et al (1997) Arch Virol 142,1441

Birnavirus Former name for a genus in the family Birnaviridae. There are now three genera: Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus and Entomobirnavirus.

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