Bovine hemadsorbing enteric virus

Synonym for Bovine parvovirus.

bovine herpes mammillitis virus Synonym for Bovine herpesvirus 2.

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. A natural worldwide infection in cattle, but antibodies can also be found in mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and ferrets are susceptible to disease in the USA. Wild ruminants in Africa are probably the original host. The virus has also been isolated from soft-shelled ticks, Ornithodorus coriaceus, collected from mule deer in western USA, but it is not clear whether ticks are a reservoir host. May cause a silent, mild infection, or acute disease of the whole respiratory tract. Mortality can be as high as 75%. In Europe it has been known to cause conjunctivitis and, notably, disease of the genital tract when lesions appear on the external genitalia. There is no evidence of antigenic difference between the respiratory and genital strains. Young goats infected experimentally develop fever; in rabbits there is meningoencephalitis with paralysis of the hind legs. Transmission of the virus is by contact, especially under crowded conditions. Has been cultivated in bovine embryo cell cultures, with CPE in 1-2 days, but there is loss of virulence. Replication also occurs in pig, sheep, goat and horse kidney cell cultures and in human amnion cultures. No evidence of human infection has been recorded. There is transformation of hamster cells in vitro. No growth in eggs. All strains are anti-genically very similar and numerous attenuated, as well as inactivated, virus vaccines are available. Synonyms: infectious bovine rhino-tracheitis virus; infectious pustular vulvovaginitis virus; necrotic rhinitis virus; red nose virus.

Straub OC (1990) In Virus Infections of Ruminants, edited by Z Dinter and B Morein. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 71 Tikoo SK et al (1995) Adv Virus Res 45, 191

Bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) A species in the genus Simplexvirus. Not distinguishable from Allerton virus. Isolated in S Africa from lumpy skin disease and once thought to be the cause of that condition. Causes deep, slowly healing ulcers on the teats and udders of milking cows, and lesions are produced on the lips of calves which suckle them. In S Africa the virus has been isolated from buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in which it produces disease, and may be transmitted by insects or ticks. Infection of day-old rats, mice and hamsters may lead to stunted growth, rashes and death. There is replication in calf kidney cell cultures with formation of large syncytia. A viable unattenuated virus given i.m. gives some protection, but no commercial vaccine is available. Shares 14% of DNA sequences with Human herpesvirus 1. Synonyms: Allerton virus; bovid herpesvirus 2; bovine herpes mammilli-tis virus; bovine mammillitis virus; bovine ulcerative mammillitis virus; pseudolumpy skin disease virus.

bovine herpesvirus 3 Renamed Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1.

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) A species in the genus Rhadinovirus. Isolated from cattle in Germany and the USA, and in UK and Africa from pulmonary adeno-matosis of sheep, but is probably not the cause of that condition. Cell-free transmission to cultures is possible, but animals are not infected by cultivated virus. Infection is probably by the respiratory route, but most contact experiments failed. May be a cause of minor respiratory disease in calves which predisposes them to bacterial disease of the respiratory tract, but in general the virus appears to be non-pathogenic. Viruses which appear to be strains of BoHV-4 have been isolated from cats and owl monkeys, and mistakenly reported as feline cell-associated herpesvirus and aotine herpesvirus 2, respectively. This might reflect contamination of biologicals used in virus isolation, such as bovine sera, by BoHV-4. Synonym: movar herpesvirus.

Bartha A et al (1987) Intervirology 28,1 Bublot M et al (1990) J Gen Virol 71, 133 Bublot M et al (1991) J Gen Virol 72, 715

Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) An unas-signed species in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Isolated from calves with encephalitis in Australia. Causes encephalitis in European breeds of cattle. Synonyms: bovine encephalitis her-pesvirus; herpesvirus caprae.

Brake F and Studdert MJ (1985) Aust Vet J 62, 331

Engels M et al (1986) Virus Res 6, 57

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) A

species in the genus Lentivirus. Isolated in 1972 from a Holstein cow obtained from a herd in Louisiana, USA, with persistent lymphocytosis. Morphologically similar to HIV-1. The RNA genome is 8.5kb in length and contains five accessory genes in addition to gag, pol and env, namely tat, rev, vif, W and Y, which have some sequence similarity to counterparts in HIV-1. Transmission has not been well studied, but iatrogenic transmission through reuse of syringes and needles is likely.

Gonda MA et al (1987) Nature 330, 388 Gonda MA (1992) AIDS 6, 759

bovine influenza virus Synonym for Bovine ephemeral fever virus.

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Type species of the genus Deltaretrovirus. Occurs worldwide, especially in dairy cattle. Causes enzootic bovine leukosis, a B-cell lymphoma, in some infected animals, but persistent inapparent infection is common and may involve 80% of an affected herd. Mitogen-stimulated cultures of lymphocytes from infected cattle produce virus, but in bovine cells only a little virus is produced. However, in bat lung cells, fetal lamb kidney and several other cell lines, virus is continuously released in abundant quantity. Cattle, sheep, goats and rabbits injected with the virus become infected, produce antibodies to the viral internal antigen, and some sheep and cattle later develop lym-phosarcoma. Human, simian, bovine, ovine, bat and caprine cells exposed to the virus or bovine leukemic cells form syncytia. Antiserum prevents syncytia formation. This can be used to assay both virus and antiserum. Antibody-positive animals are common in herds with high incidence of leukemia and colostrum provides protection against infection in the first 5-6 months of life. Infection is acquired by contact with infected animals after the maternal antibody has disappeared. The virus differs from other mammalian type C retroviruses in producing syncytia, in not having the interspecies mammalian antigen, and in having a DNA polymerase with preferential activity in the presence of Mg2+. The RNA genome is a dimer, 8.4kb in length (each monomer), with tRNAPro base-paired to serve as primer RNA for reverse transcription. Several strains have been completely sequenced. Only one antigenic type is known, but there is some relationship with human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. However, there is no evidence of human infection with Bovine leukemia virus. Control is by elimination of seropositive animals from infected herds. Synonyms: bovine enzootic leukosis virus; bovine leukosis virus; bovine type C oncovirus; enzootic bovine leukosis virus.

Burny A (1988) Vet Microbiol 17, 197 Dube S et al (2000) Virology 277, 379 Mussgay M and Kaaden OR (1978) Curr Top Microbiol Immun 79, 43

bovine leukosis virus Synonym for Bovine leukemia virus.

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