Caprine respiratory syncytial virus

Possibly a strain of Bovine respiratory syn-cytial virus.

caprinized virus Virus adapted to goats. When Rinderpest virus is adapted to goats it ceases to be virulent for cattle.

Capripoxvirus A genus of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Viruses of ungulates. The virions (300nm x 270nm x 200nm) are longer and narrower than vaccinia virions. Infectivity is sensitive to ether and trypsin. Species show serological cross-reactivity. They produce no hemag-glutinin. Genome DNA is about 145kbp in length. Mechanical transmission by arthropods occurs. Type species is Sheeppox virus. Other species are Goatpox virus and Lumpy skin disease virus. Capripox of sheep and goats is enzootic in Africa north of the equator, the Middle East and Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and parts of China. There are sporadic outbreaks in Europe. Control is by slaughter of infected animals.

Synonym: sheeppox subgroup viruses.

Gershon PD et al (1989) J Virol 63, 4703 Kitching RP (1999) Encyclopedia of Virology. Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p.1376

capsid A protein shell which surrounds the virus nucleic acid and its associated protein (the nucleoprotein core). The capsid usually has icosahedral symmetry but in some cases is helical. Capsid and core together form the nucleocapsid. See cap-someres.

Green J et al (2000) Virus Genes 20, 227

capsid polypeptide Protein-forming part of the capsid structure of a virus particle.

cap-snatching A 5' cap structure is essential for translation of most virus and cellular mRNAs, and many negative strand viruses have an enzyme in the virion which synthesizes a cap structure as the mRNA is synthesized. However two genera of viruses, Orthomyxovirus and Bunyavirus, acquire a cap structure on their mRNAs by stealing the 5' 10-15 nucleotides, including the cap, from host cell mRNA as part of their replication cycle, and this process is called cap-snatching, or cap-stealing.

capsomeres Units from which the capsid is built, visible in the electron microscope, and consisting of groups of identical protein molecules (protomers). In icosahedral capsids, the capsomeres at the 12 corners are called 'pentons' because they have five neighboring cap-someres. All other capsomeres have six neighbors and are called 'hexons'. Each penton contains five protomers, each hexon three or six. Many animal viruses have their capsomeres arranged in icosahedral symmetry.

capuchin herpesvirus AL-5 Synonym for cebine herpesvirus 1.

capuchin herpesvirus AP-18 Synonym for cebine herpesvirus 2.

CAR Coxsackie adenovirus receptor. A cellular receptor shared by group B coxsackie virus and adenovirus. A member of the immunoglobulin protein superfamily.

Martino TA et al (2000) Virology 271, 99

Caraipe virus A probable species in the genus Bunyavirus, isolated from anophe-line mosquitoes in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

Carajas virus (CJSV) A species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated in Brazil in 1983 from sandflies, Lutzomyia sp.

Travassos da Rosa AP et al (1984) Am J Trop Med Hyg 33, 999

Caraparu virus (CARV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging antigeni-cally to the C group viruses. Mosquito-borne. Isolated from a sentinel Cebus monkey and mice in Para, Brazil. Also isolated from bats. Has been associated with a febrile illness in humans. Found in Brazil, Panama, Trinidad, French Guiana and Surinam.

carbovir Carbocyclic 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine. A potent inhibitor of

Human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro.

Carter SG et al (1990) Antimicrob Ag Chemother 34, 1297

carboxymethylcellulose A cellulose derivative which is used for the separation of proteins by ion exchange chromatography.

Cardiovirus A genus of the family Picornaviridae. Consists of: (1) Encephalo-myocarditis virus (strains include Columbia SK virus, mengo virus and Maus Elberfeld virus); and (2) Theilovirus (strains include Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus and rat en-

cephalomyelitis virus). Differ from enteroviruses in losing infectivity below pH 4 instead of pH 3 and being unstable at pH 6 in the presence of chloride or bromide ions. The viruses have a poly C tract (80-250 bases) about 150 bases from the 5' terminus of the genome.

Cooper PD et al (1978) Intervirology 10, 165

Carey Island virus (CIV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. Serologically a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group (Far Eastern subgroup). Isolated from bats in Malaysia. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

carnivorepox virus A strain of Cowpox virus which differs from the reference strain (Brighton) by a low ceiling temperature for pock development on the CAM. Caused an epizootic among carnivores in Moscow Zoo.

Marennikova SS et al (1978) Arch Virol 56, 7

carp pox herpesvirus Synonym for cyprinid herpesvirus 1.

carp virus A transmissible virus obtained from cases of human multiple sclerosis. Depresses the number of circulating poly-morphonuclear neutrophils within 16-48 h of inoculation into adult mice. The effect lasts at least 11 months during which time the mice remain normal. The virus passed through membranes of 50nm average pore diameter but not of 25nm. Replicates in PAM cells, a line of mouse fibroblasts. The effect in mice was neutralized by serum from patients with multiple sclerosis. However, the mouse test has proved difficult to reproduce and is unreliable. It is possible that these results are an artifact and the virus does not exist.

Carp RI et al (1977) Lancet ii, 814 Carp RI et al (1978) Prog Med Virol 24, 158

carrier cultures A type of persistent infection of cell cultures in which only a small proportion of the cell population is infected. These cells release virus and are killed, but the released virus infects a small number of other cells. A carrier culture can be 'cured' of virus infection by adding antiviral antibody. Many different viruses can cause carrier infections. Carrier cultures may arise because most of the cells in it are genetically resistant to the infecting virus, or because of the presence of weak antibody or interferon in the cell culture medium.

carrier state The condition in which an animal is persistently infected with a virus, often without showing the signs of the disease associated with the virus. The virus can persist even in the presence of the specific neutralizing antibody.

caspase A protease, specific for cysteinyl-aspartate residues, which is involved in cell death and apoptosis.

Castelo dos Sanhos virus (CDSV) A probable species in the genus Hantavirus, isolated from a suspected case of han-tavirus pulmonary syndrome which occurred in 1995 in Castelo dos Sanhos, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The presumed rodent host of this virus is unknown.

Johnson AM et al (1999) J Med Virol 59, 527

Castleman's disease A rare B-cell lympho-proliferative disorder which has been associated with human herpes virus 8 infection.

cat distemper virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

cat fever virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

cat flu virus Synonym for Feline calicivirus.

cat leukemia virus See Feline leukemia virus.

cat plague virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

cat sarcoma virus See feline sarcoma virus.

cat-scratch disease virus A disease once thought to be due to a virus, but actually a rickettsial infection, caused by Bartonella henselae. It is a mild disease, with fever, malaise and a local lesion which becomes a pustule, and with lymphadenitis in the draining lymph nodes. A skin test has been used to confirm the diagnosis, using pus from a case as antigen. Synonyms: benign inoculation lym-phoreticulosis virus; non-bacterial regional lymphadenitis virus.

cat type C oncovirus Synonym for Feline leukemia virus and feline sarcoma virus.

catarrhal jaundice virus Synonym for

Hepatitis A virus.

Catete virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

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