Channel catfish herpesvirus CCHV

Ictalurid herpesvirus 1.

channel catfish reovirus (CRV) A strain of Aquareovirus D in the genus Aquareovirus, isolated from catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, but not associated with disease.

Chinchar VG et al (1996) Dis Aquat Org 33, 77 Hedrick RP et al (1984) J Gen Virol 65, 152

Chargaff's rule In double-stranded DNA molecules, the proportion of adenine equals that of thymine, and the proportion of guanine equals that of cytosine. This results from the pairing of the bases.

Charleville virus (CHVV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from sandflies of Phlebotomus sp and the lizard, Gehyra australis, in Charleville and Mitchell River, Queensland, Australia. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

chelating agent Compounds which bind divalent cations, so inhibiting their activity. Can be used to inhibit biological interactions which require divalent cations, e.g. deoxyribonuclease activity, or attachment of some viruses (e.g. Foot-and-mouth disease virus) to cells.

chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Epizootics of grey patch disease were observed in green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, kept in captivity in the West Indies. Two types of lesion were seen: papules and spreading grey patches 7-8 weeks after hatching. Intranuclear inclusions were present in sections of the lesions and herpesvirus-like particles were present in scrapings from the lesions. The disease could be transmitted between turtles by a cell-free extract. Fibropapillomas of both green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, in Florida appear to be caused by the same chelonid herpesvirus 1 (ChHV-1)

herpesvirus, found only in association with the tumor cells. The virus could not be cultivated in chelonian cell lines, which support the replication of other chelonian herpesviruses.

Synonyms: green sea turtle herpesvirus; grey patch disease agent of green sea turtle; grey patch disease of turtles virus.

Haines H and Kleese WC (1977) Infect Immun 15, 756

Lackovich JK et al (1999) Dis Aquat Org 30, 89 Rebell G et al (1975) Am J Vet Res 36, 1221

chelonid herpesvirus 2 (ChHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from the Pacific pond turtle. Synonym: Pacific pond turtle herpesvirus.

chelonid herpesvirus 3 (ChHV-3) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta.

Synonyms: map turtle virus; painted turtle herpesvirus.

chelonid herpesvirus 4 (ChHV-4) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from Argentine tortoises, Geochelone chilensis, with necrotizing stomatitis. Red-footed tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria, housed together with the Argentine tortoises, remained healthy and did not develop the disease. Synonyms: Argentine turtle herpesvirus; geochelone carbonaria herpesvirus; geochelone chilensis herpesvirus.

Jacobsen ER et al (1985) J Am Vet Med Assoc 187, 1227

chemokines A class of cytokines with cell-specific chemoattractant and other activating activity for various cell-types within the immune system. Divided into two types. The alpha-cytokines such as interleukin 8 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 2 act primarily upon neutrophil leukocytes. The beta-chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) and RANTES (regulation upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) act on monocytes and macrophages.

chemokinesis Random migration of cells brought about by a specific chemical substance in their environment.

Lusso P (2000) Virology 273, 228

chemotaxis Directed migration of cells in response to a chemical substance in their environment. Cells may move toward (positive chemotaxis) or away from (negative chemotaxis) the source or highest concentration of the chemical substance. Important in recruitment of leukocytes to sites of injury or inflammation.

chemotherapeutic index The ratio between the lowest effective antiviral concentration and the highest non-toxic concentration.

chemotherapy The use of compounds which will inhibit the growth of infectious agents or tumors without unduly affecting normal host cell metabolism, e.g. acyclovir for herpesvirus infections.

Chenuda virus (CNUV) A species in the genus Orbivirus belonging to the Chenuda complex of the Kemerovo serogroup. Isolated from ticks, Argas her-manni, and other species, in Egypt and Africa. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Chiba virus (ChV) A tentative species in the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses', it was first identified as a cause of an oyster-associated outbreak of gastroenteritis that occurred in Chiba prefecture, Japan in 1987. The genome is predicted to be a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA of 7697 bases, excluding a poly A tract.

Kobayashi S et al (2000) J Med Virol 62, 233 Someya Y et al (2000) Virology 278, 490

Ch1ES(NBL-8) cells (CCL 73) A hetero-ploid line derived from the trypsinized esophagus of a male fetus of the goat, Capra hircus. Developed for study of viruses that affect domestic animals, and has been used for scrapie studies.

chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells A primary cell culture system prepared from chick embryos. Used for culture of many viruses, especially orthomyxoviruses.

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