CHP 3 and 4 WW cells CCC 132 and

133) These fibroblast-like cell lines were established from skin biopsies of two young sibling black males, one with classic galactosemia and one with asymptomatic galactosemia.

chromatids Thread-like structures formed from chromatin during the first stage of mitosis (between prophase), after which they are known as daughter chromosomes.

chromatin The material which makes up cell chromosomes, consisting of equal parts by weight of DNA and histones (low-molecular-weight basic proteins), and varying amounts of non-histone chromosomal proteins. Eukaryotic chro-matin is built up from nucleosomes, each consisting of eight histone molecules with 146 bp of DNA wrapped around this protein core. The nucleosomes are arranged in supranucleosomal clusters and packaged into loops, each containing 30-90kb of DNA by supercoiling to form the 30nm chromatin fiber. This fiber undergoes further coiling and condensation to form visible chromosomes.

chromatography A method of separating and analyzing chemical substances by preferential retention, either as a gas or liquid, on to a solid medium, such as paper or a gel.

chromoneme Genome of bacteria or viruses: term introduced by Whitehouse (1969) to distinguish the 'thread-like' structure of bacterial or viral genetic material from the true chromosome of plant and animal cells.


Whitehouse HLK (1969) Towards an Understanding of the Mechanism of Heredity. London: Edward Arnold.

chromosomes Structures formed from chromatids during mitosis. Contain the nucleoprotein of the nucleus in an organized form in which it can be divided into two equal parts and thus pass on the genetic information to the daughter cells.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) A severely disabling fatigue with self-reported impairments in concentration and short-term memory, sleep disturbances and musculoskeletal pain. Occurs worldwide. A number of infectious agents have been proposed as etiologic agents of CFS, including Human herpesviruses 4 (EBV), 5 (CMV) and 6 (HHV6); enteroviruses; retroviruses; and Borrelia burgdorferi. None has proved to be a unique causative agent, but it remains possible that such infections act as a trigger for the syndrome. Synonyms: post-viral fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalitis (ME).

Fukuda K et al (1994) Ann Int Med 121, 953 Heneine W et al (1994) Clin Infect Dis 18, S121 Mawle AC et al (1994) Infect Ag Dis 2, 333

chronic progressive pneumonia of sheep virus Synonym for Visna/maedi virus.

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