Clone 15c4 cells See Chang conjunctiva cells

cloned library A collection of cloned DNA sequences representative of the genome under study.

cloning 1. Molecular cloning is the production of many identical copies of a gene from a single gene inserted into a cloning vector. 2. Cell cloning is the production of genetically identical cells from a single cell. 3. Virus cloning from a mixed population can be achieved by repeatedly picking a single plaque and so selecting a single replicating species.

cloning vector Any DNA molecule capable of autonomous replication within a host cell, into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Can be derived from a bacterial plasmid, a bacteriophage or an animal virus. There is usually a single restriction site for DNA insertion, or a pair of restriction sites defining a region that can be removed and replaced with foreign DNA.

closed reading frame A reading frame which contains terminator codons that prevent its translation into protein.

c-myc oncogene The cellular gene, located on chromosome 8, encoding the MYC protein. The virally transduced oncogene v-myc was originally found in avian mye-locytomatosis virus MC29. MYC is a nuclear transcription factor. Amplification of c-myc expression is found in many tumors, and in the case of Burkitt's lymphoma, associated with Human herpesvirus 4, this gene amplification is linked to chromosomal translocation and consequent deregulation of c-myc.

CoAr 1071 virus (CA1071V) A strain of Taciuma virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

CoAr 3624 virus (CA3624V) A strain of Anopheles A virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

CoAr 3627 virus (CA3627V) A strain of

Taciuma virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

Coari virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to the Changuinola virus antigenic group. Not associated with disease in humans.

Coastal Plains virus (CPV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from a steer, Bos taurus, in northern Australia. Not associated with disease in humans.

Cybinski DH and Gard GP (1986) Aust J Biol Sci 39, 225

coat The protective proteins surrounding the virus nucleic acid in mature virions. Includes the capsid, and may consist of a single layer as in the Picornaviridae, or several layers as in the Poxviridae.

coated pit A cell surface depression or invagination that mediates receptor-dependent endocytosis of a variety of macromolecules, and buds into the cell to form a coated vesicle. Viruses such as Semliki Forest virus or Influenza virus exploit this pathway to enter cells. See also clathrin.

coated vesicle Intracellular vesicles composed of a membrane surrounded by a protein lattice containing clathrin. During receptor-mediated endocytosis, viruses such as influenza bind to a cell surface receptor containing sialic acid, and are taken into a coated pit. A coated vesicle is formed from the coated pit by pinching off into the cytoplasm with the virus inside. Acidification of the interior of the vesicle then occurs by a proton pump in the membrane. When the pH is sufficiently low, the virus and vesicle membranes fuse releasing the nucleocap-sid into the cytoplasm. See also clathrin.

Helenius A (1992) Cell 69, 577 Simons K et al (1982) Sci Am 246, 58

cobra herpesvirus Synonym for elapid her-pesvirus 1.

Cocal virus (COCV) A species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated from mites, Gigantolaelaps sp, in east Trinidad.

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