Cow papillomavirus See bovine papillomaviruses

Cowpox virus (CPXV) A species in the genus Orthopoxvirus. Causes papules, developing into vesicles on a firm inflamed base. Crusting follows and may not clear for several weeks. Lesions appear on teats and udders of cows. May infect the hands of milkers who may then spread the infection among cattle. Transmission from humans to humans is rare. A number of infections of humans have been reported in which there was no obvious contact with cattle. It is likely that the natural host is a small mammal rather than cattle. Rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and monkeys are susceptible. Pocks on the CAM are intensely hemorrhagic and smaller at 48 h than those caused by Vaccinia virus. Pocks not produced above 40°C. Variant strains may produce white pocks. Lesions produced in rabbit skin are large and indurated, with a purple-black center. Replicates in many cell lines, some of which, e.g. RK 13, may be more sensitive than CAM. Outside Europe lesions in the cow are usually due to Vaccinia virus.

Archard LC et al (1984) J Gen Virol 65, 875 Baxby D (1977) BMJ i, l379; Arch Virol 55, 169 Pandey R et al (1985) Prog Vet Microbiol Immun 1, 199

coxsackie virus A7 (CAV7) Causes paralysis on injection into monkeys, cotton rats and newborn mice. Has been associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis with paralysis in humans. Sometimes called poliomyelitis virus type IV.

Grist NR and Roberts GBS (1966) Arch Ges Virusforsch 19, 454

coxsackie virus A9 (CAV9) A probable serotype or strain of Human enterovirus B. Resembles the echoviruses in being inhibited by 2-(a-hydroxybenzyl) benzim-idazole. Has caused many cases of aseptic meningitis sometimes with an exanthem. Has some antigenic relationship to cox-sackie A23-echo 9. Replicates in rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures with CPE and causes myocarditis in mice.

Chang KH et al (1992) J Gen Virol 73,621

coxsackie virus A10 (CAV10) A probable serotype or strain of Human enterovirus A. Associated with a distinct syndrome, lymphonodular pharyngitis.

Steignian AJ et al (1962) J Pediatr 61, 331

coxsackie virus A14 (CAV14) A probable serotype or strain of Human enterovirus A. More neurotropic than other coxsackie A viruses on injection into monkeys.

coxsackie virus A16 (CAV16) A probable strain or serotype of Human enterovirus A. The commonest cause of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in humans. Shares an antigen with enterovirus 71 but there is no cross-neutralization; however, the complete sequence of CAV16 shows homology to HEV71. The first coxsackie virus to be associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease; CAV5 and CAV10 have also been associated with this disease.

Poyry T et al (1994) Virology 202, 982

0 0

Post a comment