Creutzfeldt Jakob disease CJD One of

the subacute spongiform encephalo-pathies; a progressive degeneration of the CNS in humans, with dementia in the early stages. There may be myoclonus and typical EEG changes. Onset usually between 50 and 65 years. Occurs sporadically all over the world with an annual incidence of 1 per million population, but small clusters of cases are reported. Some cases have familial history. Has been transmitted in humans by corneal graft when the incubation period was 18 months, and by contaminated human pituitary-derived growth hormone with incubation periods of

10-30 years. The mode of natural transmission in humans is not known. There is no evidence of increased risk of developing the disease in health care workers. However, post-mortems should be conducted with extreme care. Disease can be transmitted to Old World and New World monkeys, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs and mice. The disease is caused by a prion, which has a very small size; indicated by extreme resistance to irradiation. Very heat-resistant, some infectivity surviving 100°C. Not inactivated by formalin, alcohol or ether. Following the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the UK in the 1990s, a related disease with a distinct pathology has been detected in humans, and this has been termed new variant (nv) CJD. See prion diseases. Synonym: transmissible virus-dementia virus.

Brown P et al (2001) Emerg Inf Dis 7, 6 Chesebro BW (editor) (1991) Curr Top Microbiol Immun 172, 288pp

Holman RC et al (1995) Neuroepidemiology 14, 174

Prusiner S (editor) (1999) Prion Biology and Diseases. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

CRFK cells (CCC 94) This cell line was established from the cortical portion of the kidneys of a normal female domestic cat (10-12 weeks old) and has been extensively used in feline virus research.

cricetid herpesvirus 1 (CrHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, with a regional enteritis which has been considered a neoplastic disease. Replicates in hamster embryo fibroblast cell cultures with CPE in 1-16 days. Non-pathogenic on injection into adult hamsters and mice, but fatal for suckling hamsters. Synonym: hamster herpesvirus.

Tomita Y and Jonas AM (1968) Am J Vet Res 29, 445

Cri du Chat cells (CCC 90) This cell line was established from the skin of an adult Caucasian female with Cri du Chat syndrome. The cells show a deletion in number 5 chromosome.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group viruses

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group viruses An antigenic group within the genus Nairovirus. There are four closely related viruses in this group: Hazara, Khasan, Kodzha and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. They are tick-borne and have been isolated mostly from ixodid ticks.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (C-CHFV) A species in the genus Nairovirus. Belongs to the Crimean-Congo serogroup viruses. Recognized first when it caused an epidemic of acute severe hemorrhagic fever in 1944 and 1945 in the western Crimea. Isolated from patients and from the tick, Hyalomma marginatum margina-tum. A similar disease had been known for many years in the central Asian republics of the former USSR and has since been observed on the borders of the Black and Caspian Seas, and in Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavia. A similar virus isolated independently in Zaire and Uganda in the 1960s, called Congo virus, was subsequently found to be identical, and the names were combined. Occurs over a wide area from South Africa to the Middle East and Asia. Wildlife hosts in Africa include large herbivores. Human infections commonly occur in abattoir workers having contact with infected sheep or cattle tissues. Mortality is high (10-50%).

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