CRS See congenital rubella syndrome

cryopreservation Preservation of virus or cell samples at low temperatures, usually between -70 and -180°C.

crypt cell hyperplasia A common pathological finding associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as cali-civirus or rotavirus infection.

cryptogram In virology this was proposed as a cipher used to record certain basic properties of viruses. Each cryptogram consists of four pairs of symbols with the following meanings: 1st pair: type of nucleic acid and strandedness; 2nd pair, molecular weight of nucleic acid in millions and percentage in infective particle; 3rd pair, outline of particle and shape of nucleocapsid; 4th pair, kind of host infected and kind of vector. For example, human polyomavirus = D/2:3.4/13:S/S:V/O. Although cited in the literature for a number of years, it was not universally accepted, and has dropped out of use.

Gibbs AJ et al (1966) Nature 209, 450

cryptovirogenic Having the potential to produce infective virus particles after derepression of the viral genome present within the cell. Analogous to the term 'lysogenic' used for bacterial cells.

CSIRO Village virus (CVGV) A serotype of Palyam virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from Culicoides brevitarsis in Northern Territory, Australia.

C-type virus particles A term used originally by electron microscopists to describe a morphologically defined group of enveloped RNA virus particles, often seen outside the cells in leukemic tissues. The avian and mammalian leukemia-sarcoma viruses are C-type particles as are many endogenous viruses with no known biological function. They are never seen inside the cytoplasmic matrix, but within cytoplas-mic vacuoles or at the cell surface from which they bud. Just after budding they are described as immature C-type particles. They mature rapidly, the core seems to collapse and become more electron dense. They have a diameter of 90-110nm and the core is centrally located. There is a lipoprotein envelope covered with knobs 8nm in diameter, but devoid of prominent projections. The core appears to have cubic symmetry and to consist of an outer layer of ringlike subunits 6nm in diameter forming a hexagonal pattern, and an inner membrane 3nm thick. Within this is a tubular structure which usually appears as a ring but may fill the core and may have helical symmetry.

Bernard W (1960) Cancer Res 20, 712 Dalton AJ (1972) J Natl Cancer Inst 49, 323

cubic viruses Viruses with icosahedral (cubic) symmetry of their capsid.

Cuiaba virus A probable species in the genus Vesiculovirus, isolated from a toad in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

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