glutarimide antibiotic isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. A potent reversible inhibitor of protein synthesis but does not affect the maturation of ribosomes. Active against a wide range of eukaryotic cells but does not inhibit prokaryotic systems. Synonym: actidione.
cyclo-octylamine A compound structurally related to amantadine which inhibits Influenza virus replication in cell cultures.
cyclophosphamide An alkylating anti-cancer drug which is an immunosuppressant, and has been extensively used experimentally to inhibit the immune response, especially through inhibiting B-cell division.
Cyclosporin A An 11-amino-acid cyclic peptide with potent immunosuppressive activity on both the humoral and cellular systems. Widely used in organ and bone marrow transplantation.
Cypovirus A genus in the family Reoviridae the members of which only infect arthropod species. Attempts to infect vertebrates or vertebrate cell lines have failed. More than 200 cypoviruses have been described.
cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from epithelioma of carp. Produces specific CPE in cell cultures of a warm water aquarium fish, Lebistes retic-ulatus.
Synonyms: carppox herpesvirus; epithelioma of carp virus; epithelioma papillosum of carp virus; fishpox virus.
Grutzner L (1956) Zentbl Bakt ParasitKde I Abt Orig 165, 81
cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Synonyms: goldfish herpesvirus; hemato-poietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish.
Groff JM et al (1998) J Vet Diag Invest 10, 375
cyprinid rhabdoviruses There are several rhabdoviruses that affect carp species, including spring viremia of carp virus, swim-bladder inflammation virus, and pike fry rhabdovirus (grass carp rhabdovirus).
Cysternaviridae A name proposed but not adopted for the family Coronaviridae.
cytarabine hydrochloride (ara C) 1-beta,-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine hydrochlo-ride An antiviral and antileukemic agent which inhibits DNA synthesis. In the body the drug is converted to araCTP, when it is able to inhibit both DNA poly-merase and nucleoside reductase. Its antiviral spectrum resembles that of idoxuridine. Rapidly inactivated in vivo. Was used with some success in the treatment of herpes keratitis and severe generalized herpes infection, but now replaced by acyclovir as the drug of choice.
cytochalasins A group of mold metabolites that bind to actin filaments and so stop cell movement. Virus entry through clathrin-coated pits is sensitive to cytochalasins.
cytochrome c A basic protein which is used in the electron microscopy of nucleic acids as it binds to them and renders them detectable in the electron microscope. See Kleinschmidt procedure.
cytocidal Causing cell death.
cytokines Small proteins (5-20 kDa) secreted by cells which affect the growth, differentiation or activation of other cells. They are important non-antigen-specific effector molecules which help to mediate the immune response. Examples are interferons, lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor.
cytolysis The lysis of cells.
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