D17 cells (CCL 183) A cell line, derived from an osteosarcoma, metastatic to the lung of an 11-year-old female poodle.

D4T 2'-3'-Didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymi-dine. A potent and relatively selective inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro.

D5 virus A virus isolated from a child with summer diarrheal illness which became the prototype for reovirus serotype 2. Synonym: Jones virus.

Sabin AB (1959) Science 130, 1387

Da virus A strain of parainfluenza virus type 5 in the genus Rubulavirus. Isolated from post-mortem blood from a case of infectious hepatitis. Antigenically identical to Simian virus SV5 and SA virus.

Hsiung GD (1959) Virology 9, 717

Dabakala virus (DABV) A strain of

Olifantsvlei virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from Culex guiarti and C. ingrami in the Ivory Coast.

Institut Pasteur Dakar (1984) Annual Report, p. 99

dab lymphocystis disease virus Synonym for Lymphocystis disease virus 2.

Dabney's grippe or grip Synonym for Bamble disease.

dactinomycin Synonym for actinomycin D.

Da Fano bodies Minute basophilic intracy-toplasmic inclusion bodies found in cells infected with Human herpesvirus 1 or 2.

d'Aguilar virus (DAGV) A possible species in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Palyam serogroup. Isolated from

Culicoides brevitarsis in south-east Queensland, Australia. Antibodies are present in cattle and sheep. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Dakar bat virus (DBV) A species in the genus Flavivirus belonging to the Rio Bravo virus antigenic group. No known arthropod vector. Isolated from insectivorous bats of Scotophilus sp in Senegal, Nigeria, Uganda and Central African Republic. Not known to cause disease in humans.

Dak AN B 188d virus A strain of Ippy virus in the genus Arenavirus.

DakArk 7292 virus (DAKV-7292) An unas-signed virus of the family Rhabdoviridae. Isolated from ticks, Amblyomma variega-tum. Not associated with disease in humans.

Calisher CH et al (1989) Intervirology 30, 241

DALDs disability-adjusted life days.

DALYs disability-adjusted life years.

damselfish neurofibromatosis virus (DNFV) A possible species in the family Retroviridae. Virions 90-100nm in diameter, density 1.14-1.17g/cm3, with Mn2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity, were found in association with transmissible neurofibromas of bicolor damselfish, Pomacentrus partitus, from coral reefs in Florida, USA.

Schmale MC et al (1966) J Gen Virol 77, 1181

Danazol A synthetic androgen, an anterior pituitary suppressant, that is used to relieve some of the symptoms of HTLV I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

dandy fever virus Synonym for Dengue virus.

Dane particle The original name for the complete human hepatitis B virus particle first described by David Dane; a 42nm double-shelled particle with a 7nm outer shell and a 27nm inner core.

dark field microscopy

dark field microscopy A method of microscope illumination in which the specimen is seen with light scattered or diffracted by it.

Daudi cells (CCL 213) A B lymphoblast cell line, derived from a 16-year-old black male with Burkitt lymphoma. The cells are positive for the EBNA and VCA antigens of Human herpesvirus 4.

Klein E and Klein G (1968) Cancer Res 28,1300

DBM paper Abbreviation for diazobenzyl-oxymethyl paper, used to bind RNA for Northern blotting experiments.

DBS-FCL-1 cells (CCL 161) A diploid fibroblast-like cell line, derived from enzymatically dispersed lung tissue of a 135-day-old normal male African green monkey fetus.

DBS-FCL-2 cells (CCL 162) A fibroblast-like cell line, derived from enzymatically dispersed lung tissue of a 141-day-old normal male African green monkey fetus.

DBS-FRhL-2 cells (CCL 160) A diploid fibroblast-like cell line, derived from enzymatically dispersed lung tissue of a 248g normal male rhesus monkey fetus.

DDC 2',3'-Dideoxycytidine. An inhibitor of Human immunodeficiency virus replication. In combination with zidovudine, better results were obtained in HIV-AIDS patients than with either drug alone. Synonym: Zalcitabine.

Nowak R (1995) Science 269, 1666

DDI 2',3'-Dideoxyinosine. An inhibitor of reverse transcriptase activity which has been approved for therapeutic treatment of AIDS patients with intolerance of zidovudine.

Synonyms: Videx; Didanosine.

Dearing virus A virus isolate, from the stool of a child, which became a prototype for reovirus serotype 3.

Sabin AB (1959) Science 130, 1387

3-deazaguanine A nucleoside analog which has been found to inhibit rotavirus replication.

Smee DE et al (1982) Antimicrob Ag Chemother 21, 66

3-deazauridine A nucleoside analog which has been found to inhibit orbivirus replication.

Oshiro LS et al (1978) J Gen Virol 39, 73

decay-accelerating factor (DAF) A widely distributed membrane-anchored protein (CD 55) involved in regulation of the complement cascade. It appears to function as an echovirus 7 receptor protein.

Dede cells (CCL 39) A Chinese hamster cell line, established from the lung of an adult female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus.

deer fibroma virus Synonym for Deer papil-lomavirus.

Deer papillomavirus (DPV) A species in the genus Papillomavirus. A natural infection of deer in USA producing tumors which are histologically fibropapillomas. Not transferable to calves, rabbits, guinea pigs or sheep, but fibroplastic tumors can be produced in hamsters. Synonym: deer fibroma virus.

Groff DE and Lancaster WD (1985) J Virol 56, 85

Sundberg JP and Nielson SW (1981) Can Vet J 22, 385

deer tick virus A virus which infects New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini. Appears to be a strain of Powassan virus in the genus Flavivirus.

Ebel G et al (1999) Emerg Inf Dis 5, 570

defective interfering (DI) virus Virus generated by growth at high multiplicity of infection which can interfere with the replication of normal virus (known as 'standard' virus) and may modify the outcome of disease. The term does not include virus particles in which the complete genome is missing. DI virus has four main properties: defectiveness (inability to grow in the absence of helper virus); dependence (ability to be complemented by and to replicate in the presence of helper virus); interference (causing a decrease in yield of standard virus); and enrichment (ability to increase

Deltavirus the proportion of its own yield). Originally discovered with Influenza virus (see von Magnus phenomenon), it now appears that any virus may generate defective interfering particles if passaged at high multiplicity. In all cases examined, the defective virus is found to lack a part of the genome nucleic acid, but always retains the genome sequences essential for its own replication. The missing genome functions are provided by the helper virus.

Roux L et al (1991) Adv Virus Res 40, 181

defective viral genome A virus genome which lacks adequate function in one or more genes essential for autonomous virus replication.

defective virus Virus which is unable to replicate because it lacks a complete genome. In all virus preparations there are many defective particles and they may interfere with the replication of complete particles. When viruses are passed at high multiplicity the proportion of defective particles may increase. See defective interfering (DI) virus and von Magnus phenomenon. Some defective viruses can replicate in a mixed infection with a helper virus. The helper often provides the coat proteins. See phenotypic mixing.

Huang AS (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41, 811

defensins A family of small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in vertebrate phagocytes which are active against enveloped viruses.

Daher KA et al (1986) J Virol 60, 1068

degeneracy of the code See codon.

delaviridine A non-nucleoside inhibitor of reverse transcriptase which binds directly to the enzyme. Synonym: Roscriptor.

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