Delgadito virus See Cao Delgadito virus

delta agent Synonym for Hepatitis delta virus.

delta antigen A nuclear antigen, first described in 1977, that by 1980 was characterized as Hepatitis delta virus.

Rizzetto M et al (1980) Proc Natl Acad Sci 77, 6124

delta herpesvirus Synonym for cercopithecine herpesvirus 7.

delta 1 protein An outer capsid protein of reovirus.

Deltaretrovirus A genus in the family Retroviridae, the type species of which is Bovine leukemia virus. The viruses are spread by horizontal infection. The genome is 8.3 kb in length, and contains structural genes (gag, pro, pol, and env) as well as non-structural genes (tax and rex). The tRNA primer is tRNAPro.The genus includes human and non-human primate viruses Primate T-lymphotropic virus I, human T-lymphotropic virus 1, and simian T-lymphotropic virus I, Primate T-lymphotropic virus II, human T-lymphotropic virus II and simian T-lym-photropic virus II, and Primate T-lymphotropic virus III and simian T-lymphotropic virus III. Infection is associated with B- or T- cell leukemias or lymphomas as well as neurological diseases, and a long latency. No oncogene-containing members of the genus have been recognized.

delta virus Synonym for Hepatitis delta virus.

Deltavirus A genus containing a single species, Hepatitis delta virus. Virions are spherical, 36-43 nm in diameter, with an inner nucleocapsid of 19 nm containing the circular negative sense single-stranded RNA genome, about 1.7 kb in length. The genome structure and catalytic activities resemble those of viroids and satellite viruses found in plants, but are unique and distinct from all other known animal viruses.

Dempsey cells

Dempsey cells (CCL 28) A human skin cell line, established from a two-and-a-half-year-old boy with Klinefelter syndrome, that contains a sex chromosome complement of XXXXY.

demyelination Demyelination is the loss of myelin, the lipid sheath surrounding the neuronal axon. It may be associated with a number of different virus infections.

Fazakerley JK and Buchmeier MJ (1993) Adv Virus Res 42, 249

denaturation Of nucleic acid: dissociation of double-stranded molecules into single strands, caused by high temperature or extremes of pH. Of protein: any change in the native conformation without breaking the primary chemical bonds that join the amino acids; may involve breaking noncovalent bonds (e.g. hydrogen bonds) or covalent bonds (e.g. disulfide).

Dendrid A trade name for idoxuridine eye drops.

dengue fever of cattle virus Synonym for

Bovine ephemeral fever virus.

dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) A severe hemorrhagic disease first identified in epidemic form in the Philippines in 1954 as the result of infection with dengue virus types 3 and 4. A large outbreak occurred in Cuba in 1981, followed by outbreaks in Mexico (1984), Nicaragua (1985), Puerto Rico (1986), El Salvador (1987), Venezuela (1989) and Rio de Janeiro (1990). The disease is believed to result from sequential infections with different serotypes of Dengue virus and to have an immunopathologic basis, but only 6% of patients with sequential infections actually develop the severe form of the disease. See dengue viruses 1-4.

Gubler DJ and Meltzer M (1999) Adv Virus Res 54,35

Halstead SB (1988) Science 239, 476 Kurane I and Ennis FA (1992) Semin Immun 4, 121

dengue shock syndrome (DSS) Shock is one of the severe manifestations in dengue hemorrhagic fever and, if untreated, can cause up to 50% mortality in affected patients.

Dengue virus (DENV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. Causes an acute febrile illness in humans with symptoms ranging from clinically inapparent to severe fatal hemorrhagic disease. There is an incubation period of 5-8 days, and the symptoms last about 10 days with severe headaches, retro-ocular pain, and back and limb pains. Often there is a scar-letiniform or maculopapular rash. The most severe symptoms, hemorrhagic fever with shock, probably result from infection with one dengue virus serotype in persons immune to another (See dengue viruses 1-4). The natural hosts for the virus are Aedes mosquitoes, humans, and non-human primates. Aedes aegypti is the principal vector worldwide, but other important vectors are Aedes albopictus in Asia and the Americas, Aedes scutellaris in the Pacific, and Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus in Africa. The virus is only transmitted by the bite of an infective mosquito vector. Following infection, humans and nonhuman primates usually develop a high level of viremia lasting about 5 days, and if a competent mosquito vector takes a blood meal during this viremic phase, it becomes infective after 8-12 days and capable of transmitting the virus. Replication occurs in HeLa cells with CPE and in suckling mouse brain. The virus can be adapted to eggs and other cell types. Adapted experimentally to mice, it causes flaccid paralysis of the limbs. Most non-human primates have an inapparent infection following experimental inoculation. Currently, control of dengue fever relies upon control of the mosquito vector, and despite much developmental research, no vaccine is available. See also dengue viruses 1-4. Synonyms: breakbone fever virus; dandy fever virus; polka fever virus.

Gubler DJ (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 375

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