Dicentrarchus labrax encephalitis virus A

possible species in the genus Betanodavirus isolated from juvenile sea bass.

dichloroflavan A drug that specifically inhibits rhinovirus replication, by blocking uncoating.

didanosine (DDI) A nucleoside inhibitor of retroviral reverse transcriptase, approved as an alternative drug to AZT for use in adults, or to be used in combination with a protease inhibitor as part of HAART. It can cause pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy.

dideoxyadenosine A dideoxynucleoside in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety is replaced by a hydrogen. Rapidly metabolized in vivo to didanosine (DDI) by deamination. DDI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, which is a chain-termination inhibitor of DNA synthesis, and so inhibits HIV replication.

dideoxy nucleotide method A method for sequencing DNA based on the ability of DNA polymerase to extend a primer, annealed to the template to be sequenced, until a dideoxy chain-terminating nucleotide is incorporated. The DNA template is in single-stranded form by cloning, for example, in M13. After annealing the primer, four separate reaction mixtures are used, each containing one a-labeled deoxynucleoside triphos-phate (dNTP), a mixture of unlabeled dNTPs and one chain-terminating ddNTP, such that each aliquot has a different ddNTP. The Klenow fragment of bacterial DNA polymerase 1 is added, and after incubation the newly synthesized DNA product will be terminated at all the positions where a ddNTP can be inserted. In this way, each reaction tube forms a nested set of fragments based on the primer and ending in a ddNTP. The fragments are separated by electrophore-sis using adjacent tracks for the four mixtures, on a high resolution polyacry-lamide-urea gel, and after auto-radiography the DNA sequence of the original template can be read directly as a ladder. Usually sequences up to 350

diplornavirus nucleotides can be read on a single gel, and a new primer, based on the previous sequence, can be added until the whole of the DNA sequence has been determined.

Sanger F et al (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci 74, 5463

dideoxyribose A sugar constituent of nucleotides which resembles deoxyribose except that it lacks a hydroxyl group at position 3. Thus nucleotides based on it can be incorporated into a polynucleotide chain but the lack of the hydroxyl group prevents addition of further nucleotides.

diethylaminoethylcellulose (DEAE-cellu-lose) An ion exchange medium used in chromatography. It has a pK of about 9.5 and is used in the chromatography of proteins and nucleic acids.

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