DsRNA adenosine deaminase activity See DRADA

D-type virus particles A term used originally to describe the 30nm non-enveloped particles seen in large numbers in cell nuclei from poly-omavirus-infected mice and hamsters. They proved to be polyomavirus particles and the term passed out of use. However, in their proposed classification of Retroviridae Dalton et al suggested a genus oncornavirus D, with Mason-Pfizer monkey virus as the type species. This has resulted in the Mason-Pfizer virus and morphologically similar viruses being described as having type D morphology, and the establishment of the genus Betaretrovirus, with Mouse mammary tumor virus as the type species. There are at least five such viruses:

Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, Mouse mammary tumor virus, Squirrel monkey retrovirus, Langur virus and Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus (jaagsiekte virus).

Colcher D et al (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci 74, 5739

Dalton AJ et al (1974) Intervirology 4, 201 Fine D and Schochetman G (1978) Cancer Res 38, 3123

duck adenovirus 1 (DAdV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Adenoviridae, causing egg drop syndrome (EDS). First described in 1976 as a disease of laying hens and referred to as EDS 76 virus in many publications. A widespread natural infection of ducks and geese, which show little evidence of disease. In chickens the virus replicates in nasal mucosa and subsequently in lymphoid tissues and in the pouch shell gland, resulting in eggs with abnormal thin shells and a general loss in egg production. The virus is transmitted vertically in chicken flocks, and may remain silent until the birds approach peak egg production. Isolated from chickens worldwide, which probably became infected through a contaminated vaccine. Infection also occurs in some flocks by direct contact with wild or domestic ducks or geese. Control is by eradication through slaughter of antibody-positive birds or by immunization with an oil adjuvant-inactivated vaccine applied at 3-4 months of age. Sequencing of the genome of DadV shows significant homology with bovine adenovirus 4-8 and ovine adenovirus isolate 287, but a genome organization different from members of the Mastadenovirus or Aviadenovirus genera. The creation of a new genus, Atadenovirus, to accommodate the duck, bovine and ovine viruses has been proposed. Synonym: EDS virus.

Benko M and Harrach B (1998) Arch Virol 143/4, 829

McFerran JB and Adair BM (1977) Avian Pathol 6, 189

duck adenovirus 2 (DAdV-2) A tentative species in the genus Aviadenovirus. Serologically unrelated to duck adenovirus 1. Isolated from Muscovy ducks in France.

Bouquet JJ et al (1982) Avian Pathol 11, 301


Duck astrovirus (DastV) A species in the genus Astrovirus, associated with hepatitis in ducklings, and originally called duck hepatitis virus type 2. There is one known serotype (duck astrovirus 1) Identified by electron microscopy in liver suspensions. Replicates in embryonated chicken eggs following amniotic inoculation. Distinct antigenically from astroviruses of chickens or turkeys.

Gough RE et al (1985) Avian Pathol 14, 227

duck embryo cells (CCL 141) A cell line derived from whole Pekin duck embryos.

duck enteritis virus Synonym for anatid herpesvirus 1.

Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) The type species of the genus Avihepadnavirus. A natural infection of ducks first found in domestic ducks, Anas domesticus platyrhynchos, in the People's Republic of China in 1979. Found in ducks of Anas sp worldwide except Muscovy ducks, Cairina moschata, which cannot be infected experimentally. Infection of domestic ducks is usually acquired congenitally leading to a chronic viremia. Geese may also carry the infection. The virus has provided a useful experimental model for molecular biological studies of hepad-navirus infection and replication.

Mason W and Marion P (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 650

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