Ecthyma contagiosum of sheep virus

Synonym for Orf virus.

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) A species in the genus Orthopoxvirus which is a natural pathogen of mice. Serologically related to Vaccinia virus. A latent infection, endemic in many mouse stocks, activated by stress. Injection i.p. into mice causes death from hepatitis. Injection into the skin of rabbits, guinea pigs and cotton rats produces local lesions which can be prevented by immunization with Vaccinia virus. Replicates slowly on the CAM, with small, white, irregularly shaped pocks appearing in 72 h. Pocks are not produced above 39°C. Replication occurs in a number of cell cultures, but the plaques produced are smaller and appear more slowly than those due to vaccinia,

Cowpox or Monkeypox viruses. Synonyms: mousepox virus; pseudo-lym-phocytic choriomeningitis virus.

Buller RM and Palumbo GJ (1991) Microbiol Rev 55, 80

Fenner F et al (editors) (1989) The Ortho-poxviruses. San Diego: Academic Press eczema herpeticum A severe vesiculo-pustular, umbilicated eruption caused by herpes simplex virus infection superimposed upon a pre-existing atopic dermatitis. Also called Kaposi's varicelli-form eruption. A related disease, eczema vaccinatum, results from Vaccinia virus infection superimposed upon a pre-existing atopic dermatitis.

ED50 Abbreviation for median effective dose.

E Derm (NBL-6) cells (CCL 57) A hetero-ploid cell strain initiated from a biopsy of the dermis of an approximately 4-year-old quarter-horse, Equus caballus. Has finite life expectancy.

Edge Hill virus (EHV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, serologically a member of the Yellow fever virus serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. The major vertebrate hosts are probably marsupials. No known association with disease in humans or other animals.

Edman degradation A method for sequencing peptides. The N-terminal amino acid is removed by cleavage of the peptide bond with trifluoroacetic acid. If the N-terminal residue has been labeled (e.g. with dansyl chloride) it can be identified by its chromatographic properties. Otherwise the amino acid composition of the remaining peptide is compared with that of the original peptide and the terminal amino acid determined by deduction.

Gray WR (1972) Meth Enzymol 25, 121

Edmonston virus A strain of Measles virus in the genus Morbillivirus. Isolated on the first day of the rash from the blood of a 13-year-old boy with measles, David Edmonston. Used extensively as a prototype strain of measles.

EDS Abbreviation for egg drop syndrome. See duck adenovirus 1.

EDS virus Synonym for egg drop syndrome 1976-associated virus.

EDTA Abbreviation for the chelating agent ethylenediamine-ietraacetic acid.

EEE virus Abbreviation for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.

eel iridovirus A tentative species in the family Iridoviridae, isolated from Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, in Japan.

eel orthomyxovirus-like agent A syn-cytium-inducing virus isolated from European eels, Anguilla anguilla, with 'cauliflower disease' (stomatopapilloma). The virus has not been shown to cause the stomatopapillomatosis.

Nagabayashi T and Wolf K (1979) J Virol 30, 358

eel virus American (EVA) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated in Europe and Japan from the blood of American and European eels, Anguilla ros-iraia and Anguilla anguilla. Diameter of virus particles 46-54nm. Replicates with CPE in RTG-2 or EHM monolayer cell cultures. Virus particles are present in clusters in the cytoplasm. Injection into eels has not produced any lesions or disease.

Sano T (1976) Fish Paihol 10, 221

eel virus B12 (EEV-B12) A tentative species in the genus Novirhabdovirus. Isolated from European eels, Anguilla anguilla, in France.

Castric J and Chastel C (1980) Ann Virol, Paris 13E, 435

eel virus C26 (EEV-C26) A tentative species in the genus Novirhabdovirus.

eel virus European (EVE) A tentative species in the genus Aquabirnavirus. Caused nephritis disease outbreaks in Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica, after introduction of European eels, Anguilla anguilla, into Japan and Taiwan in the 1970s. Closely related structurally to Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.

Castric J ei al (1984) Ann Virol, Paris 135E, 35

efavirenz A non-nucleoside reverse tran-sciptase inhibitor that inhibits HIV replication in vivo. Binds to the reverse transcriptase and appears relatively resistant to mutations.

Albright AV et al (2000) AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10, 1527

Martinez E et al (2000) Clin Infect Dis 31, 1266 Ren J et al (2000) Struct Fold Des 8, 1089

efficiency of plating (EOP) In growing bacterial cells on glass or plastic plates, the percentage of cells that give rise to colonies when a given number of cells are plated. In virology, a term introduced by EL Ellis and M Delbrück in 1939 (J Gen Physiol 22, 365) to quantify the relative efficiencies with which different cells could be infected and support viral replication. It is obtained by dividing the plaque count by the total number of virions in the inoculum. For animal viruses it ranges from 10-1 to 10-6 or less.

EgAn 1825-61 (EGAV) A serotype of Uukuniemi virus in the genus Phlebovirus.

egg drop syndrome 1976-associated virus (DAdV-1) A disease involving depressed and abnormal egg production in broiler chicken breeder flocks has been recognized since 1976 in western Europe. A number of serologically indistinguishable viruses were isolated, one of which, isolate 127, was further studied and found to be an adenovirus of ducks. See duck adenovirus 1. Synonym: EDS 1976 virus.

McFerran JB (1979) Vet Quart 1, 176

Todd D and McNulty MS (1978) J Gen Virol 49,

EGTA Abbreviation for the chelating agent ethyleneglycolbis-(aminoethylether)-tetraacetic acid.

Egtved virus Synonym for Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a species in the genus Novirhabdovirus.

EH IV (Elaine IV) cells (CCL 104) A cell line derived, by seeding on monolayer WI 38 cells, from the peripheral blood leukocytes of a 20-year-old Caucasian female 2 months after the onset of infectious mononucleosis. Contains Epstein-Barr virus in 0.1% of the cells.

electrophoresis

Ehrlich-Lettre ascites, strain E cells (CCL 77) A cell line, of mouse origin, derived as an explant of a 7-day-old tumor from the parental Ehrlich-Lettre ascites carcinoma, which has an unusually high mean chromosome number.

EID50:HA ratio The ratio between the infective titer measured in eggs (ID50) and the hemagglutinating (HA) titer of a virus preparation. Especially applicable to Influenza virus. It gives a measure of the proportion of defective virus particles present.

Elaphe virus A possible species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. Observed to be associated with the cells of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a corn snake, Elaphe guttata. Primary heart and kidney cells and a cell line derived from a rattlesnake fibroma could be infected with a cell-free extract of the original tumor. Productive infection could not be demonstrated in mammalian, chick embryo, piscine or non-ophidian reptilian cells.

Lunger PD and Clark HF (1978) Adv Virus Res 23, 159

Lunger PD et al (1974) J Natl Cancer Inst 52, 1231

elapid herpesvirus 1 (EpHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Herpesvirus-like particles were present in the venom of a cobra, Naja naja. Also found in a siamese cobra and a banded krait. Synonyms: cobra herpesvirus; Indian cobra herpesvirus; banded krait her-pesvirus; siamese cobra herpesvirus.

Lunger PD and Clark HF (1978) Adv Virus Res 23, 159

elapid parvovirus A probable parvovirus isolated from a corn snake, Elaphe guttata, with pneumonia. Replicated in IgH2 cells at 30°C.

Synonym: corn snake parvovirus.

Ahne W and Scheinert P (1989) Zentralbl Vet Med (B) 36, 409

electrofocusing A method for separating protein molecules by gel or density gradient electrophoresis in which a pH gradient had been established. Each protein species moves to a pH approximating to its isoelectric point.

electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) A technique for examining virus structure which is designed to avoid artefacts that may be introduced by dehydration and staining. High titer virus suspensions are placed on carbon grids then rapidly frozen in liquid ethane. This embeds the virions in a thin layer of amorphous ice within the holes in the carbon grid, and the electron micrographs can be digitized and 3-dimensional reconstruction performed.

Crowther RA et al (1994) Cell 77, 943 Dubochet J et al (1988) Q Rev Biophysics 21,129

electron microscopy A technique used for visualizing virus particles in which a beam of electrons is focused onto the specimen and an image formed on a phosphorescent viewing screen by a series of electromagnetic lenses. The contrast needed to make structures visible is provided by electron-dense salts of heavy metals such as phosphotungstate or uranyl acetate. An important technique in virus diagnosis and characterization.

Chrystie IL (1996) In Virology Methods Manual, edited by BWJ Mahy and HO Kangro. London: Academic Press, p. 91 Stefan S et al (1999) J Clin Virol 13, 105

electron spin resonance Magnetic resonance arising from the magnetic moment of unpaired electrons in a paramagnetic substance. Used in determining the structure of organic compounds.

electropherogram A picture (photograph or autoradiograph) which shows the distribution of proteins or nucleic acids that have been separated by gel electro-phoresis.

electropherotype A characteristic profile of proteins or nucleic acids separated by electrophoresis and often used to distinguish different virus strains.

electrophoresis The separation of charged macromolecules, either in free solution or in a liquid in the pores of a matrix, by the application of an electrical potential difference. The movement of the macromolecules is due to their charge but the separation may also be due to their Stokes' radius. See gel electrophoresis.

electrophoretic mobility

electrophoretic mobility The movement of proteins or nucleic acids during gel elec-trophoresis, which is characteristic for each species depending upon size, charge and other factors such as folding of the molecule.

electroporation A method for introducing nucleic acids or other large macromole-cules into cells by creating transient pores in the plasma membrane by means of an electrical pulse.

Zimmerman U (1982) Biochim Biophys Acta 694, 227

elementary bodies Small, round, stainable, extracellular aggregates of virus or viral products, seen in large numbers by light microscopy in the vesicle fluid or scrapings from skin lesions of smallpox, vaccinia, varicella and zoster.

elephant loxodontal herpesvirus Synonym for elephantid herpesvirus 1.

elephant papillomavirus (EPV) A probable species in the family Herpesviridae. Proliferative cutaneous lesions developed in a herd of captive African elephants. Southern blot analysis of DNA from lesion specimens did not indicate papil-lomavirus-specific genomes. Particles resembling herpesviruses were seen by electron microscopy.

Jacobson ER et al (1986) J Am Vet Med Assoc 189, 1075

elephantid herpesvirus (ElHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae. Routine post-mortem examination of 50 elephants, Loxodonta africana, killed in the Kruger National Park revealed lymphoid nodules in the lungs of 37 of them (74%). There were from 1 to 6 greyish-white nodules present, with diameters varying from 3 to 30mm. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusions were present in epithelial cells of the nodules, and electron microscopy demonstrated particles of herpesvirus morphology. Recent fatal endothelial disease described in 10 elephants in North American zoos was caused by elephantid herpesvirus. By sequence analysis, there seem to be two herpesviruses, one of African and one of Asian elephants.

Synonym: elephantid herpesvirus; elephant loxodontal herpesvirus.

Ehlers B et al (2001) J Gen Virol 82, 475 McCully RM et al (1971) Onderstepoort J Vet Res 38, 225

Richman LK et al (1999) Science 283, 1171

elephantpox virus Family Poxviridae. A poxvirus isolated from an elephant. Now known to be a species of Cowpox virus.

ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A serological method in which an antigen, immobilized on a solid matrix, is detected by an antibody to which an enzyme has been linked. The enzyme is detected by the production of color on reaction with a substrate.

Chernesky MA and Mahoney JB (1996) In Virology Methods Manual, edited by BWJ Mahy and HO Kangro. London: Academic Press, p. 123

Reen DJ (1994) Meths Mol Biol 32, 461

elk papillomavirus See European elk papil-lomavirus.

Ellidaey virus (ELLV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Great Island complex of the Kemerovo serogroup. Isolated from a pool of engorged ticks, Ixodes uriae, from a puffin at Ellidaey, west Iceland in 1981. Designated ELL-3a.

El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV) A species in the genus Hantavirus, isolated from the harvest mouse, Rheithrodontomys megalo-tis, in western USA, Mexico and Canada. Not known to cause disease in humans. Synonym: harvest mouse virus 1.

Hjelle B et al (1995) Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 32, 469 Hjelle B et al (1995) Virology 207, 452

elongation factor Protein, forming part of the ribosomal binding complex, which promotes elongation of a polypeptide chain.

El Tifu Negro (black typhus) A local name for Machupo virus infection.

elution of virus Release of virus particles from association with a cell surface or other solid support such as an ionexchange column. The elution of Orthomyxoviridae by the action of

endocytosis neuraminidase from erythrocytes to which they have been adsorbed constitutes an effective purification method.

EMBO European Molecular Biology Organization.

Embu virus (ERV) Unassigned virus of the family Poxviridae. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes to rodents.

EMCV See Encephalomyocarditis virus.

emerging infections Infectious diseases which are newly recognized, or have increased significantly in incidence during the previous 10 years.

emerging viruses The number of newly recognized viruses has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Factors responsible include: mutation; host factors such as immunodeficiency caused by deliberate (e.g. cancer chemotherapy) or acquired (e.g. HIV infection) immuno-suppression; new technologies for virus detection (e.g. PCR); and environmental changes (e.g. forest clearing) which bring humans in closer contact with virus vectors such as arthropods or rodents.

Mahy BWJ (1997) Antiviral Res 36, 75

empty particles Virus particles containing no nucleic acid, usually identified by negative staining and electron microscopy of virus preparations.

encephalitis Inflammation of the brain. When caused by virus infection it is termed aseptic encephalitis. Can be caused by a wide variety of viruses, especially arboviruses and some entero-viruses.

encephalitozoon rabei Name given to a supposed protozoan etiological agent of rabies. The structure is now known as the 'Negri body'.

Manouelian Y and Yiala J (1924) Ann Inst Pasteur 38, 258

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) Type species of the genus Cardiovirus. The genome of EMC contains 7840 bases plus a short poly A tract of about 35 bases at the 3' end. The 5' non-translated region is

833 bases long and contains a poly C tract located 150 bases from the 5' terminus. The virus causes a natural infection of wild rodents in which it probably rarely causes disease. Has been isolated from blood and stools of humans, from captive lower primates, pigs, squirrels and other animals. May cause febrile illness with CNS involvement in humans. Many animals can be infected experimentally. Mice and hamsters often die with CNS involvement after infection by any route. All strains are identical when compared by neutralization, CFT or hemagglutina-tion-inhibition (HAI), but many show differences in biological behavior. Agglutinates sheep erythrocytes in the cold. Replicates with CPE in cell cultures of chick, mouse, humans, monkey, hamster and cattle.

Synonyms: Columbia-SK virus; ME virus; mouse Elberfield virus; mengo virus.

Palmenberg AC (1987) In The Molecular Biology of the Positive Strand RNA Viruses, edited by Dj Rowlands et al. London: Academic Press, p. 1

endemic A disease which persists in a given population or locality.

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