Endoepidemic hemorrhagic fever virus

Synonym for Junin virus.

endogenous retrovirus A retrovirus whose genome is stably integrated into the DNA of normal cells. It is thus genetically transmitted from generation to generation. The gene sequences which can code for virus production are virogenes and are normally repressed, but may be activated by intrinsic factors (e.g. hormones) or extrinsic factors (e.g. radiation, chemicals). Once integrated into the DNA, the virogenes, both endogenous and exogenous, are subject to the same pressures of selection and mutation as other genes. The genomes of all eukaryotic organisms studied to date contain endogenous retroviruses, and amongst vertebrates endogenous retrovirus-specific nucleotide sequences have been found in all orders examined to date, including cartilaginous and bony fish. Endogenous viruses can be recovered from cells of humans and many other species, e.g. birds, mice, cats, pigs, baboons, etc. They often have a limited host range (N- or B-tropic) or may not replicate in the species from which they were isolated. Such viruses are called xenotropic or 'S'-tropic. See also human endogenous retro-viruses.

Boyce-Jacino MT et al (1992) J Virol 66, 4919 Coffin JM et al (1997) In Retroviruses. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 343

Ruis BL et al (1999) J Virol 73, 5345 Tristem M (2000) J Virol 74, 3715

endonuclease A phosphodiesterase that does not require a terminus for hydrolytic activity. Makes internal cleavages in nucleic acids. See deoxy-ribonuclease, nucleases.

endoplasmic reticulum A membrane system in the cell cytoplasm consisting of lamellae and tubules. The site at which biosynthetic processes such as membrane assembly, protein secretion and organelle biosynthesis occur in eukaryotic cells. The site of maturation of membranes of many viruses.

endosome Cellular organelle that plays a central role in endocytosis and plasma membrane recycling.

endosymbiotic infection General term coined to describe infection of cells by viruses in which replication occurs without CPE. The term was employed to distinguish this type of persistent infection from a carrier culture, in which only a proportion of the cell population is infected at any one time.

Fernandes MY et al (1964) J Exp Med 120, 1099

endothelium Squamous epithelium lining blood vessels, lymphatics and blood-filled cavities such as the anterior chamber of the eye. A number of viruses infect and multiply in endothelial cells such as filoviruses, Hendra virus and Nipah virus.

England rat cytomegalovirus A probable species in the genus Muromegalovirus. Two strains of rat cytomegalovirus have been studied in detail: the England strain and the Maastricht strain, both first described in 1982. Because of profound genetic sequence differences, these now appear to be distinct species rather than strains.

Beisser PS et al (1998) Virology 246, 341

engulfment Synonym for viropexis.

enhancement An increase in yield of virus or cytopathic effect, or both, following mixed infection of cells by two unrelated viruses. A term used when the mechanism of the process is not clear. See complementation and interference.

enhancer sequence A short cis-acting DNA sequence that increases the transcrip-tional activity of a cellular or viral gene.

McKnight S and Tijan R (1986) Cell 46, 795

Enseada virus (ENSV) An ungrouped virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from Culex (Mel) taeniopus in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Not associated with disease.

entamoeba virus (ENTV) An unassigned virus in the family Rhabdoviridae. Synonym: rhabdovirus entameba.

Entebbe bat virus (ENTV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Rio Bravo serogroup. No known arthropod vector. Isolated from the salivary glands of a pool of bats of Tadarida sp in

enzyme elevating virus

Uganda. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

enteric viruses Viruses which primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract.

enteritis of mink virus Synonym for Feline panleukopenia virus.

Enterovirus A genus in the family Picornaviridae. The type species is Poliovirus. Other species include Bovine enterovirus, Human enterovirus A to D, and Porcine enterovirus A and B. Clinical manifestations include meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, myocarditis and conjunctivitis. Distinguished from rhi-novirus by: (1) being resistant to low pH; (2) having a density of 1.32-1.35 g/ml; and (3) the disease produced in humans or experimental animals. Many species have enteroviruses which tend to be species-specific. Transmission is horizontal by fecal contamination. Food and water are often involved; arthropods may play a minor role. The first 67 human enteroviruses were divided into 4 species (3 poliovirus, 6 coxsackie B, 24 coxsackie A and 34 echoviruses) but these are now included in a new classification with only 8 species in the genus. Enteroviruses have also been isolated from several other species, e.g. horse, sheep, buffalo and dog.

Hyypia T et al (1997) J Gen Virol 78,1

enterovirus See Human enterovirus.

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