Equine morbillivirus EMV See Hendra virus

equine papillomavirus (EqPV) A possible species in the genus Papillomavirus. A natural infection of horses causing papillomas on the nose and lips, but can be transferred to the skin. Causes papil-lomas experimentally in horses, but not in other species. Synonym: horse papillomavirus.

Cook RH and Olson C (1957) Am J Pathol 27, 1087

equine parvovirus A possible species in the genus Parvovirus. Isolated from the liver of an aborted equine fetus. Hemagglutinates guinea pig, rhesus monkey and fowl ery-throcytes. Antibodies were detected in horse sera.

Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) A species in the genus Aphthovirus. Causes upper respiratory tract infections of horses whereas all other members of the genus cause foot-and-mouth disease. Included in the genus because of similarities in genome organization and structure to Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Synonym: equine rhinovirus 1.

Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) An unas-signed species in the family Picornaviridae. Causes upper respiratory tract infections of horses.

Synonym: equine rhinovirus 2.

equine rhinopneumonitis virus Synonym for Equid herpesvirus 4.

equine rhinovirus 1 Former name for Equine rhinitis A virus.

equine rhinovirus 2 Former name for Equine rhinitis B virus.

equine rhinovirus 3 (ERV3) An unassigned virus in the family Picornaviridae. Replicates with CPE in cell cultures of horse, monkey, humans and rabbit tissue. Does not require low temperature or low bicarbonate. Worldwide infection causing rhinitis and pharyngitis, often with fever. Incubation period 3-7 days. Rabbits, guinea pigs, monkeys and humans can be infected. Spreads readily in stables: virus may persist in pharyngeal secretions for up to a month.

Equine torovirus (EqTV) The type species of the genus Torovirus. Isolated in 1972 from a horse with diarrhea in Berne, Switzerland. However, the virus was not incriminated; Salmonella lille, isolated from the same swab, was believed to have caused the disease from which the horse died a week later. A similar virus was isolated in 1979 from calves with diarrhea in Breda, Iowa, USA. The viruses are different but antigenically related. Antibodies against toroviruses are widespread in ungulates, and some wild mice and laboratory rabbits have been found seropositive. Equine torovirus grows in vitro in embryonic mule skin cells and induces CPE 24-30 h after infection. The virus contains a large positive-strand RNA genome (25-30kb) and induces a 3' co-terminal nested set of five mRNAs in infected cells. Synonym: Berne virus.

Snijder EJ et al (1990) J Virol 64, 331 Koopmans M and Horzinek MC (1994) Adv

Virus Res 43, 233

eradication The total elimination of a virus species from the world. No virus has yet been totally eradicated. Smallpox eradication

(Variola virus) was declared by WHO to have been eradicated in 1980, but the virus is still stored in two repositories in Atlanta, USA and Novosibirsk, Russia. Plans are underway to eradicate Poliovirus and Measles virus within the next few years.

erb A An oncogene present in the genome of avian erythroblastosis virus strains ES4 and R. Homologous to the thyroid hormone receptor gene.

erb B An oncogene present in the genome of avian erythroblastosis virus strains H, R and ES4. Homologous to the epidermal growth factor receptor gene.

ERC group viruses Synonym for human rhinovirus.

Eret-147 virus (E147V) A serotype of Nyando virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Transmitted by mosquitoes. Isolated from mosquitoes, Eretmapodites sp. Not associated with disease.

erinaceid herpesvirus 1 (ErHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae, isolated from hedgehogs, Erinaceus europeus.

Synonym: European hedgehog her-pesvirus.

Stack MJ et al (1990) Vet Rec 127, 620

erosive stomatitis virus of cattle Synonym for Bovine papular stomatitis virus, although other viruses may cause the same clinical picture.

Erve virus (ERVEV) A strain of Thiafora virus in the genus Nairovirus. Transmitted by ticks and isolated in France and the UK. Not known to cause disease in humans.

Chastel C et al (1985) Bull Soc Pathol Exp 78, 594

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