Erythema infectiosum fifth disease A

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childhood disease with an erythematous rash (slapped cheek syndrome) and transient polyarthropathy caused by the human parvovirus, B19 virus.

erythroblast A nucleated bone-marrow cell that gives rise to red blood cells.

erythroblastosis of mice virus Has been used as a synonym for Kirsten leukemia virus, but erythroblastosis occurs to some degree with other leukemia viruses such as Friend leukemia virus.

erythroblastosis virus Synonym for avian erythroblastosis virus.

erythrocyte A mature red blood cell that is no longer involved in hemoglobin synthesis.

erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) A serious disease of salmonid fish. Epidemics have occurred among populations of cultured Coho salmon. There is anemia, with characteristic inclusion bodies in the erythrocytes, and a yellowish liver. Probably caused by a togavirus, but this is not certain.

Nakajima K et al (1998) Fish Path 33, 181

erythrodermatitis of carp The chronic form of infectious dropsy. Not caused by rhab-dovirus carpio. The etiological agent has not yet been identified.

Erythrovirus A genus in the subfamily Parvovirinae, family Parvoviridae. The type species is B19 virus. Populations of mature virions contain both positive- and negative-sense DNA strands, 5 kb in length, which usually form double-stranded DNA upon extraction. The DNA contains long, inverted terminal repeats of 365 nucleotides, and transcripts are extensively spliced to produce mature mRNAs. Replication occurs in primary erythrocyte precursor cells and primary umbilical cord erythrocytes. The cellular receptor is erythrocyte P antigen (globoside).

Anderson LJ and Young NS (1997) Monogr Virol 20, 153pp.

escape mutant A mutant virus which is resistant to neutralization by a particular neutralizing monoclonal antibody. By sequencing the genome of the escape mutant, the amino acid changes responsible for the resistance (escape) can be determined.

esocid herpesvirus 1 (EsHV-1) An unas-signed virus in the family Herpesviridae,

European elk papillomavirus (EEPV)

isolated from pike, Esox lucius, with epidermal hyperplasia.

Synonyms: northern pike herpesvirus; pike epidermal proliferative herpesvirus.

Yamamoto T et al (1983) Arch Virol 79, 255

Essaouira virus (ESSV) A serotype of Chenuda virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from ticks, Ornithodorus mar-itimus, collected from seabird colonies on Essaouris Island, Morocco, in 1979.

Estero Real virus (ERV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, serologically a member of the Patois serogroup. Isolated from the tick, Ornithodoros tadaridae, from Cuba.

ethidium bromide A chemical which intercalates between base pairs of a nucleic acid and can be used to detect nucleic acid in gels due to its bright fluorescence in UV light at a wavelength around 300nm.

ets gene An oncogene present in the genome of Avian myeloblastosis virus strain E26. This virus also carries the myb oncogene.

Eubenangee virus (EUBV) A species in the genus Orbivirus and the type member of the Eubenangee serogroup. Isolated in northern Australia from mosquitoes. Antibodies found in wallabies and kangaroos. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

eukaryotic cells Animal or plant cells, which differ from prokaryotes in having cell nuclei with nuclear envelopes and more than one chromosome, as well as nuclear divisions (mitosis and meiosis) during which the chromosomes can be seen by light microscopy. The cytoplasm contains other membrane-bound organelles as well as the nucleus.

European bat lyssavirus Species in the genus Lyssavirus. Two serologically distinct species. Originally shown to be pathogenic for humans when a bat biologist died from EBLV infection in 1985. The two serotypes are distributed throughout Europe from Spain to Russia. EBL-1 virus has been isolated from Eptisicus serotinus, and EBLV-2 from Myotis dasycneme and Myotis daubentonii.

Shope RE (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1442 Tordo N et al (1998) In Virology, vol. 1 of Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Ninth edition, edited by BWJ Mahy and L Collier. London: Arnold, p. 665 van der Poel WHM et al (2000) Arch Virol 145, 1919

European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) A

species in the genus Lyssavirus, antigeni-cally related to Rabies virus. See European bat lyssavirus.

European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) A

species in the genus Lyssavirus, antigeni-cally related to Rabies virus. See European bat lyssavirus.

European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) A species in the genus Calicivirus. Has occurred in wild and farmed brown hares, Lepus europaeus, and varying hares, Lepus timidus, in many European countries since 1980. Causes a hemorrhagic disease with liver necrosis and up to 90% mortality in adult hares. EBHS is caused by a non-enveloped virus similar to Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus with which it shares several antigenic determinants (Table E1).

Chasey D et al (1992) Arch Virol 124, 363 Gavier-Widen D (1994) Vet Pathol 31, 327 Wirblich C et al (1994) J Virol 68, 5164

European elk papillomavirus (EEPV) A

species in the genus Papillomavirus causing cutaneous fibropapillomas, especially in European elk in Sweden. Causes fibrosarcomas in hamsters.

Table E1. Strains of European brown hare syndrome virus

European brown hare syndrome virus-BS89 (EBHSV-BS89) European brown hare syndrome virus-FRG (EBHSV-FRG) European brown hare syndrome virus-GD (EBHSV-GD) European brown hare syndrome virus-UK91 (EBHSV-UK91)

European encephalitis virus

European encephalitis virus A subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus in the genus Flavivirus.

European ground squirrel cytomegalovirus Synonym for sciurid herpes-virus 1.

Barahona HH (1975) Lab Anim Sci 25, 725

European harvest mouse papillomavirus

A probable species in the genus Papillomavirus found in skin lesions including papillomas of European harvest mice, Micromys minutus.

O'Banion MK et al (1988) J Virol 62, 226

European hedgehog herpesvirus Synonym for erinaceid herpesvirus 1.

European swine fever virus Synonym for

Classical swine fever virus.

EV virus Abbreviation for enterovirus. Usually followed by the isolate number, e.g. EV70.

EV2 virus Synonym for cauliflower disease of eels virus.

Everglades virus (EVEV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from the cotton mouse, rat and Culex sp in the Everglades National Park, USA. Cases of infection, with fever and headache, have been reported in humans.

ev/J A family of endogenous retroviruses found in all chicken cells. They have deletions of the pol gene and parts of the env and gag genes.

Ruis BL et al (1999) J Virol 73, 5345

evolution A change in the genetic composition of a population, involving mutation and selection.

evolutionary tree A diagram depicting the evolutionary relationships of virus nucleic acid or protein sequences. The topology (branching order) and branch lengths are proportional to the calculated evolutionary distances. See phylogenetic tree.

excision Enzymatic removal of a nucleotide or polynucleotide from a nucleic acid polymer.

exogenous virus A retrovirus which is not present in the germ line DNA of the species in which it is found. Cf. endogenous virus.

exon A region of the genome nucleic acid of a virus or a cell which is expressed in mature mRNA. The exons of split genes are interrupted in the DNA by introns (intervening sequences). The initial transcript of such genes is processed by splicing to remove the introns, yielding functional mRNA. See also intron and splicing.

Gilbert W (1978) Nature 271, 501

exonuclease A phosphodiesterase which degrades nucleic acids stepwise either from the 3' end or from the 5' end. Examples are: exonuclease I, which acts specifically on single-stranded DNA in the 3' to 5' direction; exonuclease III, which has several activities including double-strand-specific 3' to 5' exonucle-ase, and an endonuclease activity which acts on apurinic sites in DNA; and exonuclease V, which acts from both 3' and 5' ends of linear double- or single-stranded DNA, and requires ATP for its activity.

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How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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