Fluorouracil See base analog

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Flury HEP virus A fixed strain of Rabies virus derived from Flury LEP virus by further passage in chick embryos. HEP stands for high egg passage, i.e. more than 180 times. It is avirulent for adult laboratory mammals but causes death in suckling mice. Used as vaccine. Can be propagated in human diploid cell lines, chick embryo fibroblasts and BHK21 cells.

Flury LEP virus A fixed strain of Rabies virus. Isolated in 1939 from a girl named Flury who contracted the disease in Georgia, USA. Brain tissue was injected into day-old chicks, subsequently passaged in chick brain and later in eggs. LEP stands for low egg passage, i.e. less than 80 times. Has been used as live vaccine for dogs but is insufficiently attenuated for use in cats and cattle. Can be propagated in human diploid cell lines and in BHK21 cells.

FMDV See Foot-and-mouth disease viruses.

foamy viruses Members of the genus Spumavirus which cause a foamy appearance of the cells in which they replicate. Often found in primary tissue cultures, especially following prolonged passage. Usually cause persistent infections in their natural host. There are simian and hamster species similar to the syncytial viruses of cattle, cats and humans. Isolated from chimpanzees and orangutans. No confirmed association with disease in humans. 'Human' foamy virus is the result of rare zoonotic transmission from non-human primates, and is now called Chimpanzee foamy virus. The replication pathway of foamy viruses is

formalin distinct from other retroviruses, and involves nuclear localization of the Gag protein.

Lecellier CH and Saib A (2000) Virology 271,1

Linial ML (2000) Trends Microbiol 8, 284 McClure MO et al (1994) J Virol 68, 71

FOCMA Feline oncovirus-associated cell membrane antigen. Originally it was thought that anti-FOCMA antibody protected cats from tumor development, but this remains controversial.

focus-forming assay An assay for non-cytolytic transforming viruses, e.g. Rous sarcoma virus, based on the morphology of the transformed cells in tissue culture. The sites of growth of these modified cells show up as foci.

focus-forming units (ffu) Units of quantification for the focus-forming assay.

FoLu cells (CCL 168) A cell line derived from the normal lung tissue of an adult female grey fox. Susceptible to Vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex and Vaccinia viruses.

Fomede virus (FV) A tentative species in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from the bat, Nycteris nana. Not known to cause disease in humans.

Digoutte JP (1981) Institut Pasteur Dakar Annual Report

Zeller HG et al (1989) Arch Virol 109, 253

fomites Inanimate objects which may serve to transmit virus infection such as blankets, clothing, combs and writing materials.

Fomiversen An antiviral drug (phos-phorothioate 21-mer oligonucleotide) targeted to the cytomegalovirus IE2 gene. Used by intravitreal injection for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients.

Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV-A); FMDV-ASIA1; FMDV-C; FMDV-O; FMDV-SAT1; FMDV-SAT2; FMDV-SAT3) Seven serological types, regarded as a single species in the genus Aphthovirus which cause foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals.

Infection is endemic in continental Europe, Asia, Africa and S America, but Australasia, Japan, USA and Canada are free of it. Cattle are the most commonly infected species, but pigs, sheep, goats, deer, elephants and hedgehogs may also be infected. In cattle the disease is not usually fatal but causes loss of condition. There is fever and vesicular eruption in mouth, nose, hooves and udder. There may be myocardial damage. In pigs lameness is the most prominent sign; sheep and goats are less severely affected. The disease is extremely contagious. Guinea pigs and suckling mice can be infected experimentally. Virus multiplies in bovine, porcine, ovine and mouse embryo cell cultures. Calf thyroid cell cultures are also often used. There are many subtypes, and more than 40 distinct antigenic strains are recognized. The virus is stable at pH 7.4-7.6 but is inactivated below pH 6. Control is by slaughter in non-endemic regions and by vaccination elsewhere. The vaccine is commonly grown in BHK21 cells, and inactivated using acetylethyleneimine (AEI). The serotype and strain composition of the vaccines are tailored for local requirements.

Synonyms: aphthous fever virus; aphtho virus; hoof and mouth disease; FMDV; virus aftosa; le virus de la fièvre aphteuse; maul- und klauenseuchevirus.

Fry E et al (1990) Semin Virol 1, 439 Rowlands DJ (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 568

Forecariah virus (FORV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae, serogroup 1. Isolated from the tick, Boophilus geigyi, in the Republic of Guinea. Antigenically related to Bhanja virus and Kismayo virus.

Institut Pasteur, Dakar (1985) Annual Report p. 111

formalin A clear, colorless aqueous solution containing 40% formaldehyde. A 10% solution of formalin in phosphate buffer (4% formaldehyde) is commonly used as a fixative for pathological specimens, and as a disinfectant. Also used at a lower concentration (0.015% formaldehyde) for virus inactivation during the preparation of antigens for immunization. Causes less formalin

protein denaturation than glutaralde-hyde.

Fort Morgan virus (FMV) A species in the genus Alphavirus, antigenically related to Western equine encephalitis virus. Transmitted by swallowbugs to nesting cliff swallows, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, and house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Not known to be pathogenic for humans.

Scott TA et al (1984) Am J Trop Med Hyg 33, 981

Fort Sherman virus (FSV) A serotype of Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Causes febrile illness in humans with symptoms including fever, malaise, muscle aches and sore throat.

Mangiafico JA et al (1988) Am J Trop Med Hyg 39, 593

Fortovase A soft gel formulation of the retrovirus protease inhibitor saquinavir, which has increased bioavailability compared to the parent drug.

foscarnet Trisodium phosphonoformate. A phosphonate analog with activity against herpes and Hepatitis B viruses. Approved for intravenous therapy of cytomegalovirus-associated retinitis in immunosuppressed patients. See trisodium phosphonoformate.

Foula virus (FOUV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from a pool of 10 unfed female ticks, Ixodes uriae, collected from a seabird colony on Foula, Shetland Islands, UK in 1980.

Four Corners Virus See Sin Nombre virus.

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