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H-1 virus (H-1PV) A species in the genus Parvovirus. Belongs serologically to rodent parvovirus group 2. Isolated from a trans-plantable human tumor, Hep-1, hence the designation. Very similar in biological properties to Kilham rat virus but serologi-cally distinct. Agglutinates preferentially guinea pig, hamster, human and rat ery-throcytes, in that order. Antibodies not often present in human serum but virus can replicate on injection into humans. The genome DNA is 5176 bases in length, with palindromic sequences at the 5' and 3' ends. The strain deposited in the American Type Culture Collection was isolated from the embryo of a pregnant woman with metastatic carcinoma of the breast. The natural host is probably the rat.

Rhode SL and Paradiso PR (1983) J Virol 45, 173

H-2 virus Does not exist.

H-3 virus (H-3PV) A rodent parvovirus of serological group 1. Isolated from a human tumor Hep-3, which had been transplanted for several years in conditioned rats. Serologically different from H-1 virus but related to Kilham rat virus. Agglutinates guinea pig and rat erythrocytes equally. Synonym: OLV virus.

H32580 virus (H32580V) An isolate of Tacaiuma virus, a species in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated in Cotia County, Sao Paulo State, Brazil from the blood and spinal fluid of a patient with low grade fever and strabismus.

H1-H51 The original serotype designations of the mammalian adenoviruses isolated from humans, Homo sapiens. Now grouped into six species, Human adenovirus A-F.

H1N1 An Influenza A virus subtype which was replaced in 1957 by the Asian influenza (H2N2), but reappeared in 1977 and now circulates each winter in human populations. It is a component of triva-lent influenza vaccines.

HAART Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. A strategy to use several anti-retroviral drugs in combination to suppress HIV replication. Drugs which are protease inhibitors (e.g. saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir or nelfinavir) are given two or three times daily together with reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g. ddC, delavirdine, didanosine, lamivu-dine, nevirapine or zidovudine). New drugs under development targeted at virus-cell binding, virus entry or DNA integration promise to enhance opportunities for HAART.

de Clercq E (2000) Rev Med Virol 10, 255 Griffiths PD (1999) Rev Med Virol 9,1 Telenti A and Rizzardi GP (2000) Rev Med Virol 10, 385

HADEN virus Sigla from hemad-sorbing enteric virus of calves. Synonym for

Bovine parvovirus.

hairy cell leukemia A disorder characterized by pancytopenia, splenomegaly and abnormal mononuclear cells, with cyto-plasmic projections (hairy cells), infiltrating the bone marrow, spleen and peripheral blood. An immortalized T-cell line (MoT) was established in 1976 from the spleen of a hairy cell leukemia patient, and from this line human T lym-photropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) was isolated. There is no good evidence that HTLV-2 is involved in the etiology of hairy cell leukemia, however.

HaK cells (CCL 15) A heteroploid cell line derived from the kidneys of two normal young adult Syrian or golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus.

Hallé measles virus A strain of Measles virus isolated in 1971 from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

Hamming distance The number of positions at which two nucleotide sequences of defined length differ.

hamster enteritis

hamster enteritis A common disease of laboratory hamsters with high mortality. Characterized by diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. Cause doubtful, but both viruses and bacteria have been isolated from cases. Animals under stress are very prone to this disease.

Frisk CS and Wagner JE (1977) Lab Anim 11, 79

hamster herpesvirus Synonym for cricetid herpesvirus 1.

hamster osteolytic viruses Kilham rat virus and related rodent parvoviruses.

hamster papillomavirus A species in the genus Papillomavirus. A natural infection of Syrian hamsters in which it causes skin papillomas, usually in animals more than 6 months old.

Graffi A et al (1968) J Natl Cancer Inst 40, 867 Scherneck S et al (1979) Virology 96, 100

Hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) A species in the genus Polyomavirus. Has been isolated from the spleen and kidneys of normal European hamsters, Cricetus crice-tus. Causes fatal meningitis on i.c. injection into newborn mice or golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. The genome DNA is 5366bp in length, with about 50% homology in the predicted amino acid sequence to Murine poly-omavirus.

Synonym: latent hamster virus.

Delmas V et al (1985) EMBO J 4, 1279 Hannoun C et al (1974) Ann Microbiol 125A, 215

hamster retrovirus A possible species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. Appeared spontaneously in a pigmented cell culture established from a hamster melanoma after it had been subcultured 104 times. Transforms mouse, rat and hamster cells in vitro, but not guinea pig, human or feline cells. Injection of transformed cells into hamsters will produce tumors but injection of the virus into hamsters of any age has no effect. Has not been characterized by molecular studies. See hamster type C oncovirus.

Russell P et al (1979) J Gen Virol 43, 317

hamster type C oncovirus A possible species in the genus Gammaretrovirus.

Virus particles can be seen in several transplantable tumors, and the blood of tumor-bearing hamsters contains many mature and immature C-type particles. A non-transforming helper virus can be separated from the hamster-specific sarcoma virus. Tumors induced by mouse sarcoma virus in hamsters regularly yield non-transforming viruses. The virus has not been shown to cause leukemia in hamsters, or further characterized. See hamster retrovirus.

Somers KD et al (1973) Intervirology 1, 11

hand-foot-and-mouth disease First recognized as a clinical entity and its association with coxsackie A virus established in Canada in 1957. The disease is most common in summer and autumn, and children aged 1-5 years are usually affected. Incubation period is 3-6 days. The patient may feel unwell for a day before red papules and vesicles appear in the mouth and ulcerate. The skin lesion is a maculopapular rash progressing to vesicles on the feet and hands, extending to other parts of the body. At least four types of coxsackie A virus can cause the disease: A16 most often, but in some cases A5, A9 and A10; and two types of coxsackie B virus: 2 and 5. Enterovirus 71 is also a major cause of the disease, especially cases complicated by CNS involvement. The disease occurs worldwide, but most frequently in Asia. In 1997 there was a severe outbreak with 34 deaths in young children in Malaysia. A similar outbreak occurred in Taiwan in 1998, with more than 1.4 million cases and 78 deaths in young children, and another outbreak in Singapore and Malaysia in 2000 when echovirus 7 was identified in many of the severe cases. Although enterovirus 71 was the most frequently identified virus in association with the severe cases, there are suspicions that another virus may be a cofactor in pathogenesis, and there are reports of a subgenus B adenovirus and of echovirus 7 isolated from children who died during the epidemic.

Cardosa MJ et al (1999) Lancet 354, 987 Chan LG et al (2000) Clin Infect Dis 31, 678

Hantaan virus (HTNV) A species in the genus Hantavirus. Causes hemorrhagic

Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma virus (HZFeSV)

fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. First recognized among soldiers in the Hantaan river region of Korea in 1951, when the disease became known as Korean hemorrhagic fever. A similar hemorrhagic fever is seen in Manchuria, Russia, Scandinavia and eastern Europe. It is a severe disease with damage to the kidneys, shock and oliguria. Shown to be transmitted to humans following contact with striped field mice of the species Apodemus agrarius, the natural host for Hantaan virus. This rodent is widely distributed over Eastern China, Korea and Manchuria. HFRS is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, headache, myalgia and severe malaise. The fever lasts for up to 7 days. Hemorrhagic symptoms develop in about a third of infections, usually after fever has subsided when a hypotensive phase develops with associated thrombocy-topenia, proteinuria and petechial hemorrhages. Death may occur from hypovolemic shock during this phase, or more likely during the next phase of olig-uria as blood pressure returns to normal. Recovery is slow and convalescence may take several weeks. Overall the mortality from HFRS is estimated as 2-5%; there are about 100000 cases annually in eastern China, mostly in rural districts. As with other hantaviruses, there is no person-to-person transmission, and humans appear to be a dead-end host. Infectious virus is present in saliva, urine and feces of infected rodents for several weeks after they become infected, and human infection occurs following inhalation of aerosolized urine or feces if not by direct contact.

Synonyms: epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus; hemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis virus; Korean hemorrhagic fever virus; nephropathia epidemica virus.

Schmaljohn CS et al (1985) Science 227, 1041 Wang H et al (2000) Virology 278, 332

Hantaan 76-118 virus An isolate of Hantaan virus in the genus Hantavirus.

Hantavirus A genus of the family Bunyaviridae, consisting of at least 20 morphologically and serologically related viruses, which occur worldwide. Distinguished from other genera in the family as they are not transmitted by arthropods, but primarily infect rodents, from which humans may become infected but remain 'dead-end' hosts. Each hantavirus species appears to have a single rodent species or subspecies as its natural host, which determines its geographical distribution. Most virus species can cause serious diseases in humans following infection, but person-to-person transmission has not been observed except for Andes virus in S America. Hantaviruses have never been found in arthropods. The type species is Hantaan virus. Other species are listed in Table H1.

Plyusnin A et al (1996) J Gen Virol 77, 2677 Schmaljohn C and Hjelle B (1997) Emerg Inf Dis 3, 95

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