HART See hybrid arrested translation

Hartebeest malignant catarrhal fever virus Synonym for Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2.

Hart Park virus (HPV) An unassigned species in the family Rhabdoviridae. With Flanders, Kamese, Mosqueiro and Mossuril viruses forms the Hart Park serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in California, USA. Serologically similar viruses have often been isolated in many parts of the USA and Canada. Multiplies in newborn mice on i.c. injection but poorly or not at all in embryonated eggs or cell cultures. Kills newborn mice on i.c. injection but not known to be pathogenic under natural conditions.

Haruna virus Antigenically identical to Getah virus. Isolated in Japan.

harvest mouse virus 1 Synonym for El

Moro Canyon virus.

harvest mouse virus 2 Synonym for Rio Segundo virus.

Harvey murine sarcoma virus (HaMSV) A

species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. The first strain of mouse sarcoma virus isolated. The virus is replication defective, requiring a helper virus for multi plication, and acutely transforming. Obtained from a rat injected with Murine leukemia (Moloney) virus. A recombinant between the Murine leukemia virus and the cellular oncogene Ha-ras, which encodes the guanine triphosphate binding onco-protein p21ras.

Harvey JJ (1964) Nature 204, 1104

HAT selection Growth of cells in medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine. The presence of aminopterin prevents de novo synthesis of purines or pyrimidines, and only cells having functional thymidine kinase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase enzymes will survive and form colonies.

Hawaii virus (HV) A strain of Norwalk virus in the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses' observed by electron microscopy in the feces from a family outbreak of gastroenteritis. Antigenically different from Norwalk virus.

Thornhill TS et al (1977) J Infect Dis 135, 20

Hazara virus (HAZV) A strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the genus Nairovirus. Isolated from a tick, Ixodes redikorzevi, in Pakistan. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

HB virus (HBPV) A species in the genus Parvovirus. Isolated from a cystadenocar-cinoma of the ovary of a 12-year-old girl, one human embryo and two placentas. Serologically unlike either H-1 virus or Kilham rat virus. Agglutinates guinea pig, hamster and rat erythrocytes, but not human cells.

Toolan HW (1964) Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 5, 64

Toolan HW (1968) Int Rev Exp Pathol 6, 135

HB55 virus A strain of Seoul virus in the genus Hantavirus.

HBcAg Hepatitis B core (nucleocapsid) antigen.

HBeAg Hepatitis B e (truncated, soluble core) antigen.

HBsAg Hepatitis B surface (envelope) antigen.

Heine-Medin disease virus

HBV Hepatitis B virus.

Hbx protein A protein specified by mammalian (but not avian) hepadnaviruses, the function of which is unknown. It consists of 154 amino acids in the human virus, 141 amino acids in woodchuck and 138 in ground squirrel hepadnaviruses. Thought to play a role in oncogenesis.

HCT-8 cells (CCL 244) A cell line derived by the trypsin dissociation of an ileocecal adenocarcinoma from a 67-year-old male.

HCT-15 cells (CCL 225) A colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell line which is epithelial-like in morphology and is tumorigenic in nude mice.

HCT-116 cells (CCL 247) A cell line derived from a male patient with colonic carcinoma, which is tumorigenic in athymic nude mice giving rise to epitheliod tumors.

HCV Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 2 (HCV-J6) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 3 (HCV-NZL1) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 4 (HCV-ED43) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 5 (HCV-EVH1480) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HCV genotype 6 (HCV-EUHK2) A cluster of genetically related viruses in the species Hepatitis C virus.

HD virus A possible species in the genus Polyomavirus. Isolated from a particular line of Vero cells in which it does not produce CPE. It appears to be identical to stump-tailed macaque virus.

Howley PM et al (1979) J Virol 30, 400

HDV See Hepatitis delta virus.

HEAD High-throughput Extraction, Amplification and Detection of RNA.

Legler TJ et al (1999) J Clin Virol 13, 95

HEF Hemagglutinin esterase fusion protein. A peplomer protein found on the surface of some viruses, notably Influenza C viruses, some coronaviruses and toroviruses, HEF binds to 9-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid, and has a receptor-destroying activity which is a neuraminate-O-acetyl esterase. The protein also has fusion activity. There is homology between the HEF proteins of coronaviruses and Influenza C virus.

headful packaging Mechanism for DNA packaging which occurs during replication in phage T4 and some other viruses. Empty head structures are filled with DNA from a concatemeric precursor. After completion of one 'headful', the remaining DNA is cut and the filling of a second head begins.

heart disease caused by viruses At least 18 viruses have been associated with heart disease in humans but the significance of most of them is doubtful. Rubella virus is an important cause of congenital abnormalities and coxsackie viruses are a cause of myocarditis.

See DM and Tilles JG (1991) Rev Infect Dis 13, 951

heat shock proteins Proteins that are synthesized by cells de novo or at an increased rate following heat shock (shift-up in temperature). Seem to protect against thermal damage, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

heat-tethered virus Virus whose replication is temporarily interrupted by an increase in temperature. The virus is not inactivated and on return to the permissive temperature the replication process recommences. Seen with certain Poxviridae.

Heine-Medin disease virus Synonym for

Poliovirus.

HEL 229 cells

HEL 229 cells (CCL 137) A diploid fibrob-last-like cell line, derived from the embryonic lung tissue of a black male, is one of the few such cell lines to contain the A type electrophoretic variant of glu-cose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

HeLa cells (CCL 2) The first aneuploid epithelial-like cell line to be derived from human tissue and maintained continuously by serial cell culture. Derived from cervical adenocarcinoma of a black female, Henrietta Lax.

HeLa 229 cells (CCL 2.1) A cell line derivative of the parent HeLa line, which differs chiefly in its relative insusceptibility to polioviruses.

HeLa S3 cells (CCL 2.2) A cell line that is a clonal derivative of the parent HeLa line, is especially hardy and has a plating efficiency of 100%. It is readily adaptable to growth in suspension culture for biochemical studies of viruses and cells.

helenine A fermentation product of the fungus, Penicillium funiculosum, and a potent interferon inducer. This activity is due to the presence of a double-stranded RNA viral genome. Electron microscopic studies have revealed numerous particles of typical virus morphology some 20-30nm in diameter, and similar to those seen in statolon but serologically distinct from them.

Kleinschmidt WJ et al (1968) Nature 220, 167

helical symmetry A form of symmetry in which many RNA virus capsids are constructed. Each capsomere on the helix consists of a single polypeptide molecule and establishes bonds with two cap-someres on each of the adjacent turns, giving stability to the capsid. The overall length of the helix is determined by the length of the RNA molecule. In all animal viruses with helical symmetry the nucle-ocapsid is folded and packed within a lipoprotein envelope, e.g. Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae.

helical viruses Viruses whose morphology displays helical symmetry.

helper virus A virus which, in a mixed infection with a defective virus, provides some factor without which the defective virus cannot replicate. See phenotypic mixing.

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