Hemagglutininneuraminidase HN A

glycoprotein on the surface of some

Henderson-Paterson bodies paramyxoviruses which has both hemag-glutinin and neuraminidase activities. Parainfluenza and rubulaviruses have this surface protein, but in morbilliviruses the equivalent protein has only hemaggluti-nation and no neuraminidase activity.

hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus of pigs Synonym for Porcine hemaggluti-nating encephalitis virus.

hemagglutinating virus of Japan Synonym for Sendai virus (murine parainfluenza virus type 1).

hemagglutination Clumping of red blood cells, usually present as a 1% suspension, by viruses which contain a red blood cell attachment protein (hemagglutinin) on their surface. A large number of animal viruses hemagglutinate a wide variety of red blood cells, each virus favoring certain cells from certain animals. Used as a quick, quantitative assay for certain viruses, especially Influenza virus. Some viruses, such as orthopoxviruses, induce a hemagglutinin in infected cells but it is not present on the virion surface.

hemagglutination inhibition (HI) A test for the presence of antibodies, e.g. in serum, that inhibit the agglutination of red blood cells in vitro. A wide variety of viruses will cause agglutination of certain erythrocytes, including adenoviruses, arboviruses, some enteroviruses, Influenza virus, parainfluenza viruses, Mumps virus, Measles virus, Rubella virus and reoviruses. Antibodies that react with either the virus or the antigen will prevent hemagglutination in a standard test. This simple test requires making dilutions of the patient's serum, mixing them with a fixed amount of the virus hemag-glutinin (HA), then adding an erythrocyte suspension (usually 1%). An extremely important test for influenza diagnosis and subtyping.

Chernesky MA (1996) In Virology Methods Manual, edited by BWJ Mahy and HO Kangro. London: Academic Press, p. 114

hematogenous route of entry Spread of virus, especially to the central nervous system, through blood. This necessitates virus crossing the blood-brain barrier, and may occur by passage of infected cells with viruses such as measles or HIV, or directly through viremia with some arboviruses. An alternative route, favored by some viruses such as polio, rabies or her-pesviruses, is through peripheral nerves.

hematopoietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish Synonym for cyprinid herpes-virus 2.

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