Herpes gladiatorum herpes rugbeiorum

Synonyms for scrum-pox.

herpes simiae virus Synonym for her-pesvirus B.

herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 There are two antigenic types: herpes simplex type 1 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 1; herpes simplex type 2 is a synonym for Human herpesvirus 2.

herpes simplex virus group

herpes simplex virus group Synonym for the genus Simplexvirus.

herpes venatorum Synonym for scrum-pox.

Herpesviridae A diverse family of DNA viruses with characteristic morphology. Classification is based formally on genetic content. The virion is 100-200nm in diameter. Buoyant density (CsCl): 1.20-1.29g/ml. Consists of four structural components: (1) the core, a protein fibrillar spool on which the DNA is wrapped; (2) the capsid, 100-110nm in diameter, composed of 12 pentameric and 150 hexameric capsomeres arranged with icosahedral symmetry; (3) the tegument, an amorphous asymmetrical layer between the capsid and (4) the envelope, a bilayer membrane with surface projections. The capsomeres are hexagonal in cross-section and have a hollow running down half their length. The genome consists of linear double-stranded DNA 124-235kb in length, depending on the species, with both terminal reiterations and internal repetitions. G+C content 32-75%. There are more than 20 structural polypeptides, mol. wt. 12000-220000. Lipid content is variable and located in the envelope. Carbohydrate is covalently linked to envelope proteins. After attachment and penetration the genome reaches the nucleus where the viral DNA is transcribed. mRNA passes to the cytoplasm for translation. Virus-specific enzymes and other factors involved in replication and DNA metabolism are induced. Viral DNA is replicated in the nucleus and immature nucleocapsids are formed which bud through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane, acquiring an envelope and becoming infective. Virus particles accumulate between the inner and outer lamellae of the nuclear membrane and in the cysternae of the endoplasmic reticu-lum from where they are released to the cell surface. Margination of chromatin and intranuclear inclusion bodies are characteristic of herpesvirus-infected cells. Production of infectious progeny virus is accompanied by destruction of the infected cell. All herpesviruses studied so far are also able to remain latent in their host cells. In this case, the genome becomes closed-circular and only a small subset of viral genes is expressed. There are many species and they are found in most eukaryotic hosts which have been examined in detail, from humans to oysters. Some species are cell-associated and free infective units are scarce. A few are oncogenic. Many cause mild or silent infections in their natural hosts but severe disease in others. They replicate with CPE in cell cultures and some species produce pocks on the CAM. There are three subfamilies: Alpha-herpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae and Gamma-herpesvirinae. The emphasis in defining the subfamilies and genera, and the species assigned to them, is placed on the DNA structure and sequence data.

Davison AJ and Clements JB (1998) In Virology, vol. 1 of Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Ninth edition, edited by BWJ Mahy and L Collier. London: Arnold, p. 309

Homa FL and Brown JC (1997) Rev Med Virol 7, 107

Montague MG and Hutchison CA (2000) Proc

Natl Acad Sci 97, 5334

Roizman B et al (1992) Arch Virol 123, 425

herpesvirus aotus 1 Synonym for Aotine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus aotus 3 Synonym for Aotine herpesvirus 3.

herpesvirus ateles Synonym for Ateline her-pesvirus 2.

herpesvirus ateles strain 73 Synonym for ateline herpesvirus 3.

herpesvirus B See Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus caprae Synonym for Bovine her-pesvirus 5.

herpesvirus cuniculi Synonym for leporid herpesvirus 2.

herpesvirus cyclopsis Synonym for cercop-ithecine herpesvirus 13.

herpesvirus gorilla Synonym for Pongine herpesvirus 3.

herpesvirus hominis Synonym for Human herpesvirus 1 and/or 2.

heterogenotes herpesvirus M Synonym for Saimiriine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus marmota Synonym for mar-modid herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus ovis Synonym for Ovine herpesvirus 2.

herpesvirus pan Synonym for Pongine her-pesvirus 1.

herpesvirus papio Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 12.

herpesvirus papio 2 Synonym for

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16.

herpesvirus platyrrinhae type Synonym for Saimiriine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus pottos Synonym for lorisine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus salmonis Synonym for salmonid herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus sanguinus Synonym for cal-litrichine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus scophthalmus Synonym for pleuronectid herpesvirus.

herpesvirus simiae Synonym for her-pesvirus B.

herpesvirus simian agent 8 (SA 8)

Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2.

herpesvirus suis Synonym for pseudora-bies virus.

herpesvirus sylvilagus Synonym for lep-orid herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus T (tamarinus) Synonym for Saimiriine herpesvirus 1.

herpesvirus varicellae Synonym for Human herpesvirus 3.

herpes zoster An acute self-limited infectious disease (known also as shingles or zona) caused by reactivation of latent VZV (Human herpesvirus 3) infection. It occurs frequently in persons who are severely immunocompromised, e.g. as a result of HIV infection, and may be fatal, and in up to 20% of normal immunocom-petent persons over 45 years of age. Symptoms include vesicular lesions similar to those of varicella which usually follow an anatomical route around the body along the dorsal route ganglia as the virus spreads from cells along the neurons to epithelial cells of the skin. The condition may be painful, and although the lesions disappear in a few weeks a chronic debilitating pain (post-herpetic neuralgia) often begins about a month after the onset of skin lesions and may persist for months.

Herpetoviridae A proposed but not adopted name for the family now known as Herpesviridae.

Herpid Trade name for a 5% solution of idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide.

Hershey and Chase experiment An important experiment carried out in 1951 using bacteriophage T2 that demonstrated the importance of virus nucleic acid rather than protein for transmission of infection.

Hershey AD and Chase M (1952) J Gen Physiol 36,39

Hershey Medical Center virus A her-pesvirus found in human cells transformed by cytomegalovirus, and subsequently shown to be Bovine herpesvirus 1. Presumably a contaminant from the fetal calf serum used in the culture medium.

HER virus Abbreviation for hemorrhagic encephalopathy of rats virus.

heteroduplex A double-stranded DNA molecule in which the strands do not have completely complementary base sequences. Regions of non-complementarity can often be identified in electron micrographs of the DNA, and used to map their position (heteroduplex mapping).

heterogenotes Bacteria with parts of two prophages. The first prophage is called the 'endogenote' and the second the 'exogenote'.

heterokaryon

heterokaryon Hybrid cell formed by fusion of two cells of different species. See homokaryon.

heterologous interference See interference.

heteroploid virus A multiploid virus in which the genomes in a particle are not all the same.

heterozygosis Having one or more pairs of dissimilar alleles.

HEV See Hepatitis E virus.

hexamer A group of six protein subunits which form a capsomere on the triangular faces of capsids with icosahedral symmetry. See also hexon.

hexon One of a group of six protein units on the triangular faces of an icosahedral capsomere.

HFL1 cells (CCL 153) A human fetal lung fibroblast cell line derived from the lung tissue of a 16- to 18-week-old human fetus.

HG 261 cells (CCL 122) A cell line derived from the skin biopsy of a 6-year-old Caucasian male with Fanconi's anemia that exhibits a higher percentage of transformed colonies following SV40 virus infection than normal diploid cell cultures.

HHBV Abbreviation for Heron hepatitis B virus.

high 5 cells Adherent insect cells derived from egg cell homogenates of lepi-doptera, Trichoplusia ni. Used for propagation of baculoviruses and expression of high-level recombinant proteins.

Highlands J virus (HJV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from rodents, birds and mosquitoes in USA. No known association with disease.

high pressure (performance) liquid chro-matography (HPLC) A method for separating peptides, oligonucleotides, etc. with high resolution.

high voltage electrophoresis Electro-phoresis at potential differences of more than 1000 volts. Used in nucleic acid sequencing and in paper electrophoresis of nucleotides.

Hinze virus Synonym for leporid her-pesvirus 2.

Hippotragine herpesvirus 1 (HiHV-1) A

species in the genus Rhadinovirus, isolated from a roan antelope, Hippotragus equinus.

Reid HW and Bridgen A (1991) Vet Microbiol 28, 269

Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) An unas-signed vertebrate rhabdovirus, first isolated on Honshu Island, Japan in 1984, from flounder, Paralychthys olivaceus, with hemorrhagic disease. Rainbow trout fry can be infected experimentally. The virus is serologically unrelated to most other fish rhabdoviruses.

Kimura T et al (1986) Dis Aquat Org 1, 209

Hirt supernatant The supernatant from a virus-infected cell culture lyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). A method of separating viral from cellular DNA based on the preferential precipitation of undegraded cellular DNA in the presence of SDS and sodium chloride final concentration 1m.

histones Basic proteins rather more complex than protamines. They contain tyrosine but little or no tryptophan. Millon's reaction is positive for histones but negative for protamines. Found in cell nuclei in varying amounts in close association with DNA. There are five main classes, differing in their relative content of lysine and arginine.

HIV See Human immunodeficiency virus.

Hivid (zalcitabine, ddC) 2',3'dideoxycyti-dine, a nucleoside analog used in the treatment of HIV infection.

HIX virus A murine non-transforming type C retrovirus with properties of both an eco- and a xenotropic virus.

Fischinger PJS et al (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci 72, 5150

horsepox virus

HK-PEG-1 (formerly PEG1-6) cells (CCL 189) A hybridoma cell line, produced by fusing P3X63Ag8 myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with Influenza virus; secretes a monoclonal antibody (IgG3) that reacts with the virus.

HL-60 cells (CCL 240) A promyelocytic cell line, derived from the peripheral blood leukocytes of a 36-year-old Caucasian female with acute promyelocytic leukemia; produces subcutaneous myeloid tumors in nude mice.

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