Human adenoviruses 151 HAdV1 to

51) Serotypes which form six species in the genus Mastadenovirus. There are 51 serotypes which can be divided into three groups on the basis of agglutination of rhesus monkey and rat erythrocytes. Divided into six species (A-F) on the basis of DNA genome homology. This results in the inclusion of several monkey adenoviruses and one bovine adenovirus as strains or serotypes within the six human species which contain the following serotypes and associated symptoms: A: human serotypes 12, 18, 31, chimpanzee adenovirus strain Y34, simian adenoviruses 2-4, 6, 9-11 and 14.

Highly oncogenic in animals, cryptic enteric infection in humans. B: human serotypes 3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 21, 34, 35, 50 and simian adenovirus 21. Weakly oncogenic in animals, respiratory and kidney infections in humans.

C: human serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, bovine adenovirus 9, chimpanzee adeno-virus C2 and simian adenovirus 13. Respiratory disease, latent in adenoids.

D: human serotypes 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 51. Keratoconjunctivitis. E: human serotype 4, and simian aden-oviruses 22, 23, 24 and 25. Conjunctivitis and respiratory disease. F: serotypes 40 and 41, and simian adenoviruses 16 and 19. Infantile diarrhea.

Replication occurs in most primary and continuous human cell cultures. There is an early CPE in heavily infected cultures due to penton antigen, and a late CPE associated with virus replication. Some animal cells support productive or abortive infection. With some types, multiplication is promoted by concomitant infection with SV40. In mixed infections hybrid particles may be formed. Infection in humans may be silent, or respiratory disease of varying severity produced. Transmission in humans is mainly airborne but virus is often present in stools and urine. The strains present in feces may be difficult to cultivate in vitro although present in large numbers. Types 43 to 49 were all isolated from AIDS patients. A vaccine has been used with success, but the onco-genicity of the viruses indicates caution in its use.

Synonyms: adenoid degeneration agent; adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival agent.

Kidd AH et al (1995) Virology 207, 32 Wadell G (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1

Human adenovirus A-F (HAdV-A to F) Six species in the genus Mastadenovirus.

Human astrovirus (HAstV) The type species of the genus Astrovirus. Astroviruses were first described during investigation of an outbreak of diarrhea in infants. Virions were originally detected by electron microscopy as having a diameter of 28-30 nm, with no envelope and the appearance of a 5- or 6-pointed star on the surface of about 10% of the virions. This feature suggested the name astrovirus. Virions contain a single molecule of infectious, positive-sense single-stranded RNA, 6.8 to 7.9 kb in length. The eight human serotypes identified by immuno-fluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy are serologically distinct from animal strains and share at least one common epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody. Serotype 1 is by far the most common, accounting for 72% of isolations. Grouping of strains by sequence analysis corresponds to the serotype groups. Infection occurs worldwide, primarily in infants, but outbreaks in elderly and immunocompromised patients have been described. By age 10 years, there is 75% antibody prevalence. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA test has been developed for detecting astrovirus in fecal specimens.

Lee TW and Kurtz JB (1994) Epidemiol Infect 112, 187

Monroe SS (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 104 Noel JS et al (1995) J Clin Microbiol 33, 797

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