Human astrovirus 18 HAstV1 to

Serotypes of Human astrovirus in the genus Astrovirus.

human caliciviruses (HuCV) Members of the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses'. A group of viruses originally called 'small round-structured viruses' (SRSV), including Norwalk virus (the prototype virus), Desert Shield strain, Hawaii strain, Lordsdale strain, Mexico strain, Snow Mountain strain and Southampton strain. These viruses have a diameter of 27nm and lack typical calicivirus appearance but genome sequence analysis shows that they form a group within the genus Calicivirus. The Norwalk virus genome is positive single-stranded RNA, 7642 nucleotides in length, containing three open reading frames and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. Cause periodic outbreaks of water-borne and food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Illness is usually mild and self-limited with symptoms lasting only 12-24 h after an incubation period of 48 h.

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Human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 (HCV-229E and HCV-OC43) Species in the genus Coronavirus. Cause acute respiratory disease (common colds) in humans mainly from January to March. 229E virus was isolated in 1966 in human embryonic kidney cells from a medical student with a cold. OC43 virus was isolated in 1967 in organ culture from a patient with respiratory infection. Not always easy to isolate; human tracheal organ cultures are probably the best method for primary isolations. The corona-like virus particles seen in feces and associated with diarrhea are difficult to isolate even in organ cultures. Strains have a common CF antigen but differences in antigenic structure can be demonstrated by neutralization tests and they belong to different coronavirus anti-genic groups. OC43 is antigenically related to mouse hepatitis virus and 229E is related to coronaviruses of pigs (TGEV) and cats (FECV). Some strains of OC43 virus agglutinate human and monkey erythrocytes at 4°C, and chicken, rat and mouse erythrocytes at room temperature or 37°C. Neuraminic acid receptors are not involved. Can be adapted to replicate in suckling mice and will kill them in 2-3 days following i.c. injection. Propagation in vitro is difficult, but strains of 229E can be adapted to growth in human diploid fibroblast cell lines.

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