IgM See immunoglobulin

iguana virus Synonym for iguanid her-pesvirus 1.

iguanid herpesvirus 1 (IgHV-1) A possible species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from a spontaneously degenerating cell culture of tissue from a green iguana, Iguana iguana. On injection into iguanas it caused no consistent disease pattern observable on necropsy, but 7 of 12 animals injected died. Has narrow

immune response host range. Replicates in iguana cell cultures with CPE at certain temperatures.

Synonyms: iguana virus; green iguana herpesvirus.

Clark HF and Karzon DT (1972) Infect Immun 5, 559

Iguape virus (IGUV) A serotype of Aroa virus in the genus Flavivirus. Isolated from sentinel mice exposed in a forested area of Iguape, Brazil, in 1979. Antibodies were detected in 25 species of birds belonging to 16 families.

Coimbra TLM et al (1993) Intervirology 36,144

Ilesha virus (ILEV) A serotype of Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus, antigenically related to Bunyamwera virus. Isolated in Nigeria, Uganda, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Senegal from the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

Ilheus virus (ILHV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. Main natural host not known but antibodies are found in humans, horses and birds. The virus has been isolated from at least eight genera of mosquitoes and from febrile patients, sentinel monkeys and once from a bat in the Amazon region of Brazil. In addition to Brazil, occurs in Colombia, Central America and the Caribbean. Usually causes an inapparent infection in humans but a few cases of encephalitis are recorded. Mice injected i.c. develop encephalitis. Viremia occurs in several species but not in chickens and pigeons. There is replication on the CAM but most virus is in the embryo. In chick embryo, BHK21 and Vero cells, virus replicates with CPE.

Southam CM et al (1951) Am J Trop Med Hyg 31, 724

IM-9 cells (CCL 159) An immunoglobulin-secreting cell line, established from a bone marrow sample from a female patient with multiple myeloma.

Imiquimod 1-(2-methylpropyl)-1H-imi-dazo(4.5-c)quinolin-4-amine. An antiviral agent active against human papillo-maviruses. May act by inducing interferon alpha.

Miller R et al (1995) Int Antiviral News 3,111

immobilized DNA (or RNA) Term used to describe nucleic acid attached to membrane filters or activated paper for the purpose of DNA-RNA hybridization.

immortalization A change produced by virus infection of a cell culture, which results in continued growth of the cells beyond the time at which it would have been expected to stop. Similar or identical to transformation, but the term is used to emphasize the fact that there is no evidence of neoplastic transformation. Used especially to describe the continued growth of human cells after infection with Epstein-Barr virus.

immune complex diseases Diseases that result from deposition of virus antigen-antibody complexes in tissues such as the kidney or blood vessels. Usually occur when an excess of antigen circulates as complexes with antibody. Examples are glomerulonephritis and polyarteritis nodosa in chronic hepatitis B carriers, and the immune complex diseases characteristic of Aleutian mink disease or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

Lai KN et al (1991) N Engl J Med 324,1457

immune evasion In order to survive for prolonged periods viruses must hide from or evade the immune response of the host. Certain sites such as the nervous system are immunologically privileged, and the virus is protected from the immune system while replicating there. Herpesviruses are one example, but measles or rabies viruses can also survive for many years in the human CNS. Some complex viruses such as cytomegalovirus or Variola virus have developed specific ways to inhibit the human immune response to accomplish immune evasion.

Fazakerley JK and Buchmeier MJ (1993) Adv Virus Res 42, 249

Nash A et al (1996) Semin Virol 7,125

immune response The response of the immune system to an antigen, e.g. foreign proteins or carbohydrates. It can be a humoral (antibody), cell-mediated (T cell) response or immunological tolerance. In most virus diseases, the production of specific antibody provides immune response

protection against reinfection but there are instances where antibody alone is insufficient.

immunity The condition of a living organism whereby it resists and overcomes an infection or disease (protective immunity). Active immunity occurs in response to stimulation with antigen (e.g. vaccine) during infection. Passive immunity is due to antibody or primed lymphocytes derived from another immune individual (e.g. maternal immunity).

immunization Rendering an organism immune to a specific disease pathogen. Usually performed by injecting preparations into the organism which will induce antibodies against the causal agent of the disease. It is also possible to immunize by the oral route as shown by the success of the Sabin (live oral poliovirus) vaccine in eradicating poliomyelitis. Vaccines based on plants such as banana or potato are under development for oral administration, which could revolutionize immunization practices.

immunoassays Assays for virus infection based upon the presence of antibodies in serum samples.

immunocytochemistry The identification of the location of antigens in cells by the use of antibodies to which a reporter molecule, e.g. ferritin, gold or a fluorescent dye, is attached.

immunodeficiency viruses See specific virus, e.g. human viruses or simian viruses.

immunodiffusion A serological procedure in which antigens and antibodies in solution are permitted to diffuse toward each other through a gel matrix. The interaction between the antigen and antibody is manifested by a 'precipitin' line produced by the precipitation of the antigen-antibody complex.

immunoelectron microscopy Techniques in which virus and specific antiserum are mixed before examination by electron microscopy. The antibody agglutinates the virus particles into small clumps which are easier to find. The technique can also be used to test for the presence of antibodies to a known virus, or to identify a virus using a range of sera.

Almeida JD and Waterson AP (1969) Adv Virus Res 15, 307

immunoelectrophoresis A technique in which an antigen mixture is first separated into its components by electrophoresis in a supporting medium (e.g. agar gel), then allowed to react with antiserum so that immunoprecipitation lines are allowed to develop. It is a powerful analytical method for resolving complex mixtures of antigens.

immunofluorescence (IF) A technique in which antigen or antibody are conjugated to fluorescent dyes for detecting the corresponding antigen or antibody in cells and thin sections by fluorescence microscopy.

immunogen A substance which induces the production of specific antibodies in a suitable animal.

immunogenic Capable of inducing humoral or cell-mediated immunity.

immunoglobulin A set of proteins produced in the immune response. Several classes of immunoglobulins have the same basic structure of two identical light (L) polypeptide chains and two heavy (H) chains linked together by non-cova-lent forces and disulfide bonds. There are five classes distinguished on the basis of five different types of H chain: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE; the heavy chains are termed y, a, |i, S and £, respectively. The concentration of IgD and IgE in animal serum is very low. IgG is the most common, comprising about 75% of all immunoglobulins; it has a mol. wt. of 150 x 103 and will fix complement. IgM has a mol. wt. of 900 x 103 and also fixes complement. IgA has a mol. wt. of 160 x 103 and does not fix complement.

immunogold labeling The linking of colloidal gold molecules to antibodies. The gold molecules can then be detected by electron microscopy of samples containing antigen which have been treated with the labeled antibody.

inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) of psittacine birds

Beesley JE and Betts MP (1984) Proc Roy Microscop Soc 19, 36

immunohistochemistry A technique for detecting specific antigens during histo-logical examination by first treating the pathological specimen with a specific antibody linked to a dye such as naphtha red.

immunological drift Synonym for anti-genic drift.

immunoperoxidase The linking of horseradish peroxidase to antibodies. The antibodies are then used in tests such as ELISA or Western blotting and in cyto-logical studies; the presence of the peroxidase is detected by reaction with a substrate that gives a color.

immunoprecipitation The precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes that forms the basis of several serological tests. When this occurs in solution the test is called a 'precipitin' test; when the reac-tants diffuse toward each other in a gel it is known as 'immunodiffusion'.

immunosuppression Suppression of the immune response, e.g. by drugs, infection, irradiation or antilymphocyte serum. Deliberate immunosuppression is needed, for example to prevent rejection following transplant surgery, and this can lead to reactivation of latent virus infections such as polyoma or herpesviruses.

immunotherapy The use of antibodies to ameliorate or prevent disease symptoms. In the case of virus-induced tumors, antibodies against viral antigens may prevent tumor growth.

IMR-32 cells (CCL 127) A cell line established from an abdominal mass occurring in a 13-month-old Caucasian male.

IMR-33 cells (CCL 146) A continuous cell line, derived from the fibroma of a gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

IMR-90 cells (CCL 186) A human diploid fibroblast cell line, derived from the lungs of a 16-week-old female fetus.

inactivation Loss of infectivity of a virus. Can result from exposure to certain chemicals, specific antibodies or adverse physical conditions such as heat or irradiation. See also neutralization.

inapparent infection An infection which does not give recognizable symptoms.

incidence rate The number of cases of disease in a specified period of time divided by the population at risk. Usually applied to acute diseases of short duration.

inclusion body An area of abnormal staining in a virus-infected cell. Visible by light microscopy and may be single or multiple, large or small, round or irregular, intranuclear or intracytoplasmic, acidophilic or basophilic. Often composed of viral nucleic acid or proteins, but in some infections formed of cellular material. Of limited use in the diagnosis of certain infections, for example Negri bodies in the brain cells of animals suspected of having rabies.

inclusion body disease virus Synonym for

Human herpesvirus 5.

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