Initiation codon start codon See initiation

intercalation initiation factor One of the several protein factors that function in the initiation of protein synthesis. There are 10 or more in eukaryotic cells, designated eIF1, 2, 3, etc.

Inkoo virus (INKV) A strain of California encephalitis virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in Finland up to 70°N. Antibodies found in humans, cattle, hares, foxes and other wild animals. A few cases of febrile illness with rising antibodies are reported in humans.

innate immune response The first response to infection which occurs before the lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immune response. Involves innate defense mechanisms such as natural killer cells which induce apoptosis of virus-infected cells. Synonym: non-adaptive immune response.

Inner Farne virus (INFV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus.

inoculation Introduction of virus into a host to initiate replication and/or to stimulate an immune response.

inosine The ribonucleoside of hypoxan-thine.

inosiplex An antiviral drug. The 3:1 molar complex of N-N-dimethylamino-2-propanol p-acetamidobenzoate and inosine. A controlled double-blind study in human volunteers challenged with rhinovirus suggested that the drug exerts significant effects when used therapeuti-cally. The clinical effectiveness of the drug may be due to its activity as an immunopotentiator. Synonym: isoprinosine.

Ginsburg T and Glasky AJ (1977) Ann NY Acad Sci 284, 128

Inoue-Melnick virus Synonym for sub-acute myelo-optico-neuropathy virus.

insert A segment of foreign DNA cloned into a bacterial plasmid or other gene vector.

insertional inactivation Inactivation of a gene by insertion of nucleotides into the coding sequence.

insertional mutagenesis Introduction of one or more nucleotides in DNA or RNA to alter gene expression.

insertion sequences (IS elements) Small transposable genetic elements first detected in bacteria, ranging in size from 0.7 to 1.8 kb. Can insert into several sites in the host genome and can cause transposition of the gene segments which they flank. The termini of the insertion sequence consists of inverted repeats. It is thought that IS elements may have been involved in the origin and evolution of true viruses.

in situ hybridization Use of specific nucleic acid probes to localize viral nucleic acids in cells or tissues.

integrase (IN) A virus-induced enzyme which cuts and joins DNA molecules at specific sites, originally described for temperate bacteriophages. Involved in the insertion of viral DNA into chromosomal (host) DNA. In retroviruses, the integrase is a product of the pol gene.

Katz RA and Skalka AM (1994) Annu Rev Biochem 63, 133

integrated viral genome A viral genome which is incorporated into the cellular DNA and is replicated with it.

integration The process of insertion of viral DNA into the host genome. It usually involves a virus-coded enzyme, the integrase. The viral DNA is then replicated by the host nucleic acid replication mechanism.

integrins A family of structurally related heterodimeric receptors that mostly bind to an RGD sequence of adhesive proteins. Function as cell surface receptors for the penton base protein of adenoviruses.

Wickham TJ et al (1993) Cell 73, 309

integument Structural component of some virions situated between the capsid and the envelope.

intercalation The insertion of planar molecules such as acridine dyes between the adjacent base pairs of double-stranded DNA or double-stranded RNA.

intercalation

Intercalating agents can inhibit the replication and transcription of DNA and cause a frameshift mutation.

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