Killer cells See natural killer NK cells

kilobase (kb)

kilobase (kb) A measure of the size of a nucleic acid molecule. One kilobase = 1000 nucleotides. Animal virus DNAs range in size from less than 2 kilobases (Circoviruses) up to several hundred (Poxviruses).

Kimberley virus (KIMV) A tentative species in the genus Ephemerovirus. Isolated from cattle, Bos taurus, in Australia.

Calisher CH et al (1989) Intervirology 30, 241

kinase Enzyme that catalyzes phosphoryla-tion (e.g. transfer of the phosphoryl group of ATP to another compound). See polynucleotide kinase and protein kinase.

Kindia virus (KINV) A serotype of Palyam virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from the tick, Amblyomma variegatum, in the Guinea Republic.

Boiro I et al (1986) Bull Soc Pathol Exot Fil 79, 187

kinkajou herpesvirus Synonym for lorisine herpesvirus 1.

Kirk virus A strain in the genus Parvovirus. Serologically belongs to rodent par-vovirus group 1. Isolated from a line of Detroit 6 cells which had been inoculated with plasma from an individual who had ingested MS-I infectious hepatitis serum.

Kirsten leukemia virus A strain of Murine leukemia virus in the genus Gammaretrovirus, recovered from C3Hf/Gs mice which had been injected with a cell-free extract of thymic lymphoma tissue. Newborn mice injected with the virus develop splenomegaly, excessive proliferation of red cell precursors and a severe, rapidly fatal anemia. Synonym: erythroblastosis of mice virus.

Kirsten WH et al (1967) J Natl Cancer Inst 38, 117

Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KiMSV) A

species in the genus Gammaretrovirus belonging to the Mammalian virus group, isolated from a W/Fu rat injected when newborn with Kirsten leukemia virus. It appears to be a recombinant between the leukemia virus and an endogenous rat type C oncovirus genetic sequence, and carries the Ki-ras oncogene, which encodes a guanine-triphosphate-binding plasma membrane protein.

Kirsten WH and Mayer LA (1967) J Natl Cancer Inst 39, 311

Kismayo virus (KISV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae, belonging to serogroup 1. Related to Bhanja and Forecariah viruses. Isolated in Somalia from a tick, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, which was removed from a jackal.

Hubalek Z and Holouzka J (1985) Arch Virol 84, 175

Klamath virus (KLAV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated from a meadow mouse, Microtus montanus, in Klamath County, Oregon, USA. Replicates in BHK21 cells with CPE. Day-old mice die 7 days after i.c. injection. Resembles rabies in cytopathology. Antigenically related to Mount Elgon bat virus. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Calisher CH et al (1989) Intervirology 30, 241 Murphy FA et al (1972) Arch Ges Virusforsch 37, 323

Kleinschmidt procedure A technique for preparing monomolecular films of DNA or RNA for electron microscopy. Nucleic acids are coated with a basic protein, e.g. cytochrome c, and spread on a denatured protein monolayer at an air-water interface. The nucleic acid molecules are shadowed with a heavy metal, then viewed in the electron microscope.

Klenow fragment The larger of the two fragments of Escherichia coli DNA poly-merase I formed after limited proteolytic cleavage. It retains the DNA polymerase and the 3'-5' exonuclease activities, but lacks the 5' to 3' exonuclease activity of the intact enzyme.

knockout A general term for the elimination of a gene (a null allele) from an organism. Experimental animals, such as mice, from which a particular gene has been eliminated (knocked-out), can be used to test the functions of related gene products.

Koutango virus (KOUV)

koala retrovirus (KORV) An endogenous virus detected by electron microscopy of PBL cultures and lymphoid tissue of koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. The complete proviral DNA sequence showed relationship to Gibbon ape leukemia virus.

Hanger JJ (2GGG) J Virol 74, 4264

Koch's postulates Criteria for determining whether a particular microorganism is the etiological agent of a disease. They are:

(1) The microbe is regularly found in lesions of the disease.

(2) It can be grown in pure culture in vitro.

(3) When such a pure culture is inoculated into experimental animals, a similar typical disease results.

(4) The microbe can be reisolated from the experimentally induced disease in animals.

These postulates were modified for application to virus diseases by Rivers (1937) to read:

(1) Isolation of virus from diseased hosts.

(2) Cultivation in experimental hosts or host cells.

(3) Proof of filterability (to exclude larger pathogens).

(4) Production of a comparable disease in the original host's species or in related ones.

(5) Reisolation of the virus.

(6) Detection of a specific immune response to the virus.

Rivers TM (1937) J Bacteriol 33, 1

Kodzha virus (CCHFV) A strain of

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the genus Nairovirus.

Kodzha virus AP92 A strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the genus Nairovirus.

Kodzha virus C68031 A strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the genus Nairovirus.

Kokobera virus (KOKV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia and in New Guinea. Occasional human infections have been reported in patients with acute polyarticular disease.

Boughton CR et al (1986) Med J Aust 145, 90

Kolongo virus (KOLV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from birds, Euplectes afra, in Central African Republic. Antigenically related to Mokola virus. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV) An unas-signed vertebrate rhabdovirus closely related to, but distinct from, the rabies-related Kotonkan virus. Isolated from the blood of bovines near Darwin, Australia.

Gard GP et al (1992) Intervirology 34, 142

Koongol virus (KOOV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus. With Wongal and MRM31 viruses forms the Koongol serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia and New Guinea. Not reported to cause disease in humans. Antibodies are common in cattle in Queensland.

Koplik's spots Diagnostic signs seen in the prodromal stage of measles virus infection. Small irregular bright red spots on the buccal and lingual mucosa, with a minute bluish white speck in the center of each.

Korean hemorrhagic fever virus Synonym for Hantaan virus.

Kotonkan virus (KOTV) An unassigned species in the family Rhabdoviridae, isolated from Culicoides sp in Nigeria. There is serological evidence of infection in humans and domestic animals. Probably the cause of an acute febrile illness similar to ephemeral fever in Nigeria. Antigenically related to Obodhiang virus and Rochambeau virus.

Bauer SP and Murphy FA (1975) Infect Immun 12, 1157

Kemp GE et al (1973) Am J Epidemiol 98, 43

Koutango virus (KOUV) A species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup. Isolated from Kemp's gerbil, Tatera kempi, and rodents of Mastomys and Lemnyscomys sp in Senegal and Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Kowanyama virus (KOWV)

Kowanyama virus (KOWV) An unas-signed virus of the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from Anopheles sp in the Mitchell River area, north Queensland, Australia. Antibodies found in domestic fowls, horses and kangaroos. Not reported to cause disease in humans, although antibodies are found in aborigines.

Doherty RL et al (1968) Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 62, 430

Kozak rule For optimal translation of an mRNA, positions -3 and +4 relative to the first nucleotide of the initiation codon must be G or A.

Kozak sequence A base sequence near the 5' end of untranslated mRNA which is required for efficient recognition of the initiation codon by eukaryotic cell ribosomes. The sequence is Ccpurine CCAUGG.

Kumba virus A strain of Semliki Forest virus isolated in Cameroon.

Kumlinge virus (KUMV) A strain of Tickborne encephalitis virus (European subtype) in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex (European subtype). Isolated from the tick, Ixodes ricinus, squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, field vole, Microtus agrestis, hare, Lepus timidus, thrushes, Turdus sp and a bunting, Emberiza citrinella, in Finland. Causes a febrile illness with encephalitis in humans (5-20 cases annually in Finland).

Kunitachi virus Synonym for Avian paramyxovirus 5.

Kunjin virus (KUNV) A serotype of West Nile virus in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes, Culex annulirostris, in Queensland, Australia, and in Borneo and Sarawak. Can cause fever with a rash and encephalitis in humans, and has been isolated from one case of infection in a laboratory worker.

Kununurra virus A species in the family Rhabdoviridae. Isolated in suckling mice from a pool of female mosquitoes, Aedeomyia catasticta, collected with chicken-baited traps at Kununurra in Western Australia. Not reported to infect humans.

Liehne CG et al (1976) Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 81, 499

Kuru A disease caused by a prion, one of the transmissible spongiform encephal-opathy agents. A subacute progressive degeneration of the brain in humans. The natural disease was restricted to a small area in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, centered round the Fore people. It appears to have been caused by ritual cannibalism of the dead. With the discontinuance of this practice the disease has essentially disappeared. See also prion diseases.

Gajdusek DC (1977) Science 197, 943

Kwatta virus (KWAV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated from Culex sp in Surinam. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Calisher CH et al (1989) Intervirology 30, 241

Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) A tick-borne species in the genus Flavivirus, member of the Mammalian tick-borne virus group. The tick vector is Haemaphysalis spingera. In an epidemic among forest workers in Mysore State, India, in 1957, symptoms included headache, fever, back and limb pains, prostration, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhages into the intestine and at other sites. No CNS involvement. A number of dead langurs and bonnet macaques were found during the epidemic and the disease may be disseminated by movement of monkeys and birds. Antibodies are present in small forest mammals. The virus is widely distributed in India, but human infections occur only in Mysore. Mice develop encephalitis on injection by various routes. They may fail to develop antibodies and remain chronically sick for long periods. Suckling hamsters are also susceptible but other rodents are resistant. Rhesus and bonnet monkeys develop viremia on i.c. or i.p. injection but show no disease. No vaccine is yet available.

Kyzylagach virus (KYZV) A serotype of Sindbis virus in the genus Alphavirus, isolated in Russia from mosquitoes, Culex modestus.

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