Liverpool vervet herpesvirus Synonym for

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9.

Ljungan virus (LV) An unassigned virus in the family Picornaviridae. May be a species in the genus Parechovirus. Isolated from bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, near the Ljungan river in Medelpad County, Sweden. Causes mild CPE without cell lysis in Vero or GMK cells. Particles are 27 nm diameter. Some sequence similarity is seen in the 5' non-coding region with mengo virus, and in other regions of the genome with echovirus 22. No firm link with disease in humans.

Niklasson B et al (1999) Virology 255, 86

Llano Seco virus (LLSV) A serotype of Umatilla virus in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from mosquitoes, Culex tarsalis, in California, USA. Not known to cause disease in humans.

LLC-MK2 cells (CCL 7) A heteroploid cell line derived from a pooled suspension of cells from kidneys of six adult rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta.

LLC-RK1 cells (CCL 106) An aneuploid epithelial-like cell line derived from pooled kidneys of several New Zealand white rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, of undetermined sex.

LLC WRC 256 cells (CCL 38) A heteroploid cell line derived from a Walker rat, Rattus norvegicus, carcinoma maintained in adult Harlan-Wistar rats.

local infection The infection of a few cells of a host which is prevented by the host response from spreading systemically.

Lokern virus (LOKV) A serotype of Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from the hare, Lepus californicus, rabbit, Sylvilagus auduboni, mosquitoes, Culex tarsalis and Culicoides variipennis, in Kern County, California, USA. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

lollipops Abnormal particles of T-even bac-teriophage produced in bacteria in the presence of the amino acid analog cana-vanine.

Uhlenhopp EL et al (1974) J Mol Biol 89, 689

Lone Star virus (LSV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated from the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma ameri-canum. Antibodies have been found in raccoons. Found in Kentucky, USA. Not known to cause disease in humans.

long terminal repeats (LTRs) Identical sequences of several hundred nucleotides which occur as direct repeats at the ends of linear proviral double-stranded DNA of retroviruses or transposable genetic elements, and contain promoters for initiation of transcription. They are formed by reverse transcription of the RNA genome of retroviruses and are composed of sequences copied from the unique 3' (U3) and 5' (U5) ends. Consequently, each end of the provirus contains an LTR that consists of U3-R-U5, R being a DNA copy of a sequence found near both ends of the genome RNA.

lookback studies Retrospective studies to determine the presence of a virus infection in a population. Applied particularly to hepatitis C, which could not be diagnosed until 1990, when tests were developed. Lookback studies were then applied to find seropositive persons infected earlier for counseling and treatment for hepatitis C infection.

Lordsdale virus (LDV) A strain of Norwalk virus in the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses'.

Dingle KE et al (1995) J Gen Virol 76, 2349

lorisine herpesvirus 1 (LoHV-1)

lorisine herpesvirus 1 (LoHV-1) An unas-signed species in the family Herpesviridae. Isolated from kinkajou, Potos flavus, skin and kidney cell culture showing spontaneous CPE. Replicates in a narrow range of cell cultures: kinkajou, owl monkey and Vero cells with CPE. Produces A-type intranuclear inclusion bodies. Probably non-pathogenic for kinkajou, rabbit and owl monkey.

Synonyms: kinkajou herpesvirus; kinka-jou kidney virus; herpesvirus pottos.

Barahona HH et al (1973) Lab Anim Sci 23, 830

Louping ill virus (LIV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. A member of the tickborne virus group. There are four recognized subtypes: British, Irish, Spanish and Turkish. Causes an acute meningoencephalomyelitis disease in sheep and, less often, in cattle, deer and man. The disease has two phases: in the first there is fever and viremia; and in the second, several days later, incoordination of movement followed by paralysis and often death. The second phase may be absent and probably many infections are subclinical. Laboratory workers and men in contact with sheep may be infected, showing signs of severe meningitis and some encephalitis. Rodents, deer, shrews and red grouse may be naturally infected without clinical disease. Injection i.c. in mice causes encephalitis. Pigs can be infected but not guinea pigs or rabbits. Ixodes ricinus is the vector and the sole natural reservoir of infection. A formalin-ized vaccine is available for sheep and humans.

Synonym: ovine encephalomyelitis virus.

Heinz FX and Kunz C (1982) J Gen Virol 62, 271 McGuire K et al (1998) J Gen Virol 79, 981

louping ill virus British subtype A strain of Louping ill virus found in Scotland, and in north and south-west England.

louping ill virus Irish subtype A strain of Louping ill virus found in Ireland.

louping ill virus Spanish subtype A strain of Louping ill virus found in Spain.

louping ill virus Turkish subtype A strain of Louping ill virus found in Bulgaria and Turkey.

LPMV Abbreviation for La-Piedad-Michoacan virus. See Porcine rubulavirus.

LP virus A strain of Lassa virus.

L-R cells Leukosis virus-negative Rous cells. A name suggested for cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus which are not producing infective virus particles. They were formerly known as non-producer cells but by electron microscopy can be seen to be producing virus particles indistinguishable from the infective ones. The term is not in common use.

Hanafusa H and Hanafusa T (1968) Virology 34, 630

LS virus A possible species in the genus Parvovirus. A rodent parvovirus of sero-logical group 1. Isolated from a Wistar rat chloroleukemic tumor. Serologically similar to latent rat virus but not pathogenic for newborn hamsters except when given i.c., when it may cause cerebellar hypoplasia and ataxia.

LuIII virus (LUIIIV) A species in the genus Parvovirus. Isolated from a line of human lung cells Lu 106, originating from Stockholm, Sweden. The natural host is unknown. Can be maintained in HeLa cells. The Douglas chimpanzee cell line is highly susceptible. Agglutinates erythro-cytes of the same species as H-1 and latent rat virus, but differs from these viruses in replicating in human cells and not in rodent cells. On passage in newborn hamsters becomes adapted and causes massive intestinal hemorrhage. In pregnant hamsters it crosses the placenta, infects the fetus and causes abortion.

Soike KF et al (1976) Arch Virol 51, 235

Lucke frog herpesvirus Synonym for ranid herpesvirus 1.

Lukuni virus (LUKV) A serotype of Anopheles A virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in Trinidad and in Belem, Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

Lumbovirus (LUMV) A serotype of California encephalitis virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Originally isolated from the mosquito, Aedes pembaensis, in Mozambique.

Antigenically indistinguishable from Tahyna virus but distinct from other members of the California serogroup.

Ozden S and Hannoun C (1978) Virology 81, 210

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) A

species in the genus Capripoxvirus, which causes a severe disease characterized by high fever with multiple skin nodules and lesions in viscera of cattle in Africa. Virus is present in saliva for at least 11 days and in semen of bulls for 22 days. The disease is spread by biting flies (which probably act as mechanical short range vectors) and is most prevalent in the central and southern regions. Virus attenuated by egg passage and tissue culture is used as a vaccine for cattle, but is highly virulent for sheep and goats. An attenuated sheeppox virus vaccine which also protects cattle against lumpy skin disease has been described. A feature of the disease is that epidemics recur after an interval of 5 or 6 years in an unvaccinated cattle population. The virus has been isolated from flies, Biomyia fasciata and Stomoxys calci-trans, caught on infected animals, and these are possible vectors of transmission.

Synonyms: Neethling virus; exanthema nodularis bovis; Knopvelsiekte.

Cheneau Y et al (1999) Rev Sci Tech 18, 122 Gershon PD et al (1989) J Virol 63, 4703 Weiss KA (1968) Virology Monogr 3, 131 pp Woods JA (1988) Trop Anim Hlth Prod 20, 11

Lundy virus (LUNV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, in the Kemerovo serogroup.

Lungers virus Synonym for Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus.

Lwoff-Horne-Tournier scheme An early virus classification scheme based mainly upon morphology.

lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) The name given by French workers at the Pasteur Institut to the first-reported isolate of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This virus was recovered from a person with lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes) who was also in a group at high risk for AIDS. The prototype virus was named LAV LAI, after the initials of the patient.

Barre-Sinoussi F et al (1983) Science 220, 868

lymphoblastoid cell lines Cell lines usually derived from culture of peripheral blood leukocytes. Usually grow in suspension and do not attach to glass or plastic. Frequently contain the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome in latent form. Can be superinfected by EBV and a variety of other viruses.

Lymphocryptovirus A genus in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Gamma-herpesvirinae. Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) is the type species and Cercopithecine herpesviruses 12,14 and 15, Pongine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 3 are other members. The viruses all have a distinctive genome structure. In EBV, the virion DNA of about 180 kb is linear and bounded by terminal repeats of about 500 bp, which fuse after infection of lymphocytes to form a circular DNA episome. Internally the genome contains short (12 kb) and long (134 kb) unique sequence regions separated by multiple copies of a direct repeat. The genome contains about 90 genes, 10 of which express proteins in latently infected cells.

Sandberg ML et al (2000) J Virol 74, 9755 Sugden B (1994) Semin Virol 5, 197

Lymphocystis disease virus 1 (LCDV-1) A species in the genus Lymphocystivirus which causes a benign superficial cellular hypertrophy in a wide range of marine and freshwater fish including flounder and plaice. Particle size ranges from 198 to 227 nm. Infectivity is ether-sensitive. The genome of about 150 kb contains 195 potential open reading frames. Causes acute to chronic (5 days to 9 months) benign hypertrophic lesions on the gills and skin, which contain greatly enlarged cells that eventually degenerate with release of infectious virus. Transmission is horizontal by contact with other fish. Causes a massive enlargement of cells (up to 100000-fold). The virus genome DNA (about 200kb long) is circularly permuted, terminally redundant and highly methylated. A one-step growth cycle of the virus at 25°C takes about 4 weeks.

Synonym: flounder lymphocystis disease virus; flounder virus.

Tidona CA and Darai G (1997) Virology 230, 207

Tidona CA and Darai G (1997) Arch Virol (Suppl) 13, 49

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