M

M virus Synonym for Saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (marmoset herpesvirus).

M14 virus Chinese isolate of a probable member of the genus Coltivirus, family Reoviridae.

M459 virus (BWAV) A serotype of Bwamba virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

M67U5 virus (MNTV) A serotype of Minatitlan virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

MA104 cells An epithelial cell line established from an African green monkey fetal kidney.

Maastricht strain A strain of rat cytomegalovirus (murid herpesvirus 2). Because of major sequence differences from the England strain, it has been proposed that these strains represent distinct species.

Beisser PS et al (1998) Virology 246, 341

Macaque monkey virus Synonym for

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 5.

Blakely GA et al (1973) J Infect Dis 127, 617

Macaua virus (MCAV) A serotype of Wyeomyia virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes, Sabethes soperi and once from a rodent, Proechimys guyannensis, in Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

Machupo virus (MACV) A species in the genus Arenavirus belonging to the Tacaribe serogroup. One of the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. First recognized in 1959 as the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, which is severe and fatal in some 25% of cases. Hemorrhages occur, with rash, myalgia, CNS involvement and conjunctival inflammation. Sporadic outbreaks occur in the Beni region of Bolivia. The most notable of these affected 700 people in one town and there was 18% mortality. Transmission from humans to humans is unusual but does occur. The only known reservoir is a rodent, Calomys callosus. Experimental infection of guinea pigs causes subclinical infection but in marmosets, Saguinus geof-froyi, the infection is fatal. Synonym: Bolivian hemorrhagic fever virus.

Peters CJ et al (1996) In Fields Virology, Third edition, edited by BN Fields et al. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, p. 1521

Maciel virus A strain of Andes virus isolated in Argentina from the rodent Bolomys obscurus.

macromolecule A molecule having a molecular weight in the range of more than 1000 to many millions.

macrophage A mononuclear cell of the reticuloendothelial system that functions in phagocytosis. Relatively long-lived. There are different types depending on the tissue of origin, e.g. peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, Kupffer cells of the liver, histiocytes (tissue macrophages) and osteoclasts. Play an important first defense role against foreign substances, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, releasing chemokines that stimulate other cells of the immune system, and playing a role in antigen presentation.

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