Murine polioencephalomyelopathy virus

An ecotropic strain of Murine leukemia virus. Causes a non-inflammatory spongiform degeneration of the CNS which results in paralysis of the limbs. The condition occurs spontaneously in wild mice between the ages of 7 and 18 months. It can be produced in Swiss but not BALB/c (Mo) mice by i.c. injection of virus when they are less than 24 h old. The incubation period is dose-dependent and can be as short as 3 weeks. Synonym: polio-encephalomyelopathy of mice virus.

Brooks BR et al (1979) Infect Immun 23, 540

murine poliovirus Synonym for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

Murine Polyomavirus (MPyV)

Murine Polyomavirus (MPyV) A species of the genus Polyomavirus. A natural infection of wild and laboratory mice. Causes no disease under natural conditions, but if injected into newborn mice or hamsters is highly oncogenic. Replicates with marked CPE in mouse embryo cell cultures. Hamster cell cultures are not permissive for virus replication but are transformed by the virus. Hemagglutinates erythro-cytes of several species, e.g. guinea pig, at 4°C by reacting with the neuraminidase-sensitive receptors, and non-enzymic elution occurs at room temperature. The genome is circular DNA, 5.3 kb in length, and specifies three T antigens: ST, MT and LT. Both MT and LT are involved in cell transformation induced by the virus. LT (785 amino acids) complexes with the tumor-suppressing protein, Rb, and inactivates it; MT (421 amino acids) complexes with three cell proteins, including c-src pp60, and so contributes to cell transformation. Polyomaviruses have proved to be valuable models of virus replication and cell transformation mechanisms.

Consigli RA and Center MS (1978) CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 6, 263

Pipas JM (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1352

murine sarcoma viruses (MSV) Several species in the genus Gammaretrovirus which carry transduced cellular onco-genes. The first to be described, Harvey murine sarcoma virus (HaMSV), was isolated from rats that had been injected with high-titered Murine leukemia virus preparations and had developed sarcomas. Subsequently, other investigators made similar observations and several viruses, each having different transduced cellular oncogenes, are now recognized: Harvey-MSV (H-ras), Moloney MSV (mos), Kirsten-MSV (Ki-ras), FBJ MSV (fos), FBR-MSV (fos-fox), 3611 MSV (raf). The H-ras and Ki-ras genes are different but related cellular genes. Because the transduced cellular gene is inserted into the original Murine leukemia virus genome, these acute transforming murine sarcoma viruses are replication-defective. They induce sarcomas in mice after a latent period of only a few days and transform fibroblasts in cell culture, but are unable to produce infective progeny virus in the absence of a mouse leukemia virus which acts as a helper. The Harvey and Kirsten strains cause marked erythroblastic splenomegaly and progressively growing sarcomas. The Moloney strain does not affect the ery-throid cells and the tumors which it induces usually regress except in very young or immunosuppressed mice.

de Vos AH et al (1988) Science 239, 888 murivirus Synonym for human rhinovirus.

Muromegalovirus A genus in the subfamily

Betaherpesvirinae. The type species is Murid herpesvirus 1 (mouse cytomegalovirus). Contains two species Murid herpesvirus 1 and Murid herpesvirus 2 (rat cytomegalo-virus).

Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) A

species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serogroup. Natural host probably a bird. The major vector is Culex annulirostris, but other mosquito species may be involved. Occurs in Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia, and in Papua New Guinea. After the spring rains the virus is carried south to Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. In humans it causes a mild fever and, in some cases, encephalitis. There may be troublesome sequelae. Epidemics occur and children are most often infected. Horses may be infected but do not develop encephalitis. The major vertebrate hosts may be herons, especially the rufous night heron, Nycticorax caledonicus. Encephalitis follows i.c. injection in mice, hamsters, monkeys, sheep and chicks. Rabbits, guinea pigs and birds usually only have viremia. Antibody is present in the yolk of eggs laid by infected birds. Virus replicates in eggs, producing pocks on the CAM.

Synonym: Australian X-disease virus. Mackenzie JS et al (1994) Arch Virol 136, 447

Murray Valley virus Synonym for Murray valley encephalitis virus.

Murre virus (MURV) A strain of Uukuniemi virus in the genus Phlebovirus. Isolated from Uria aalge.

MVM virus

Murutucu virus (MURV) A strain of Marituba virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the group C viruses. Has been associated with a febrile illness in humans. Isolated from a sentinel Cebus monkey and mice in Para, Brazil. Has also been isolated from the rodents, Nectomys squamipes and Proechimys guyan-nensis, the opossums, Didelphis marsupialis and Marmosa sp, and mosquitoes of Culex sp.

Mus caroli type C retrovirus A possible species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. An endogenous xenotropic C-type virus. Found in a cell line derived from the Asian mouse, Mus caroli, on treatment with bromodeoxyuridine. The reverse transcriptase and p30 antigen are more closely related to the Woolly monkey sarcoma virus and Gibbon ape (leukemia) virus, than to laboratory mouse viruses.

Lieber MM et al (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci 72, 2315

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