Muscovy duck parvovirus MDPV A

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species in the genus Parvovirus.

Mus dunni retrovirus (MDEV) An endogenous murine retrovirus first identified during tests for possible helper viruses in human gene transfer experiments with retroviral vectors. The helper assay cells from Mus dunni could be activated by treatment with hydrocortisone or IUDR to produce the virus, which is unrelated to known murine leukemia virus groups. It is able to infect a wide range of cell types from different species.

Miller AD et al (1996) J Virol 70, 1804

mus1-mus2 Serotype designation given to the mastadenovirus isolated from the mouse, Mus musculus. Family Adeno-viridae.

mutant A variant virus containing a gene that has undergone mutation which may be expressed in the phenotype. The standard virus is called the 'wild-type'.

mutation A change in the genotype of an organism not resulting from recombination. In its simplest form it is the substitution of one nucleotide for another leading to changes in the structure of the protein coded for by a nucleotide sequence or modifying gene regulation sequences.

MVA Modified virus Ankara. A strain of Vaccinia virus that is under development as a gene vector, particularly in conjunction with DNA-based vaccines.

Antoine G et al (1998) Virology 244, 365 Hill AVS (2000) In 'Fighting Infections in the 21st Century'. London: SGM, p. 87

MVC Synonym for Canine minute virus.

Mv 1 Lu (NBL-7) (CCL 64) A cell line derived from the trypsinized lungs of several nearly full-term unsexed fetuses of the Aleutian mink, Mustela vison.

MVM virus Synonym for Mice minute virus.

MxA protein

MxA protein Name for the human protein products of the Mx gene, which has antiviral activity.

Mx1 gene A gene activated by interferon which produces MxA protein.

Tazi-Ahnini R et al (2000) Human Genet 106, 639

Mx proteins The products of the Mx gene are proteins which are induced by interferon and have antiviral activity against Influenza virus, Hepatitis C and other viruses.

Staeheli P et al (1993) Trends Cell Biol 3, 268 Staeheli P (1990) Adv Virus Res 38, 147

myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) Synonym for chronic fatigue syndrome.

mycoplasma Gram-negative bacteria which lack a cell wall and are resistant to many antibiotics. Have occasionally been confused with viruses. Formerly known as pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO).

mycoviruses Viruses which replicate in the cells of fungi.

Hollings M (1978) Adv Virus Res 22, 2

myelin basic protein (MP) A protein found in brain and cerebrospinal fluid that appears to be the result of myelin breakdown as a result of viral encephalitis. A lymphoproliferative response against MP has been detected in disorders such as measles encephalitis, varicella encephalitis and as a consequence of post-exposure rabies immunization.

myeloblastosis-associated viruses A name suggested for the avian myeloblastosis viruses (AMV); helper viruses, present in 'standard' AMV but not leukemogenic. Chicken leukosis sarcoma viruses with surface properties of subgroup A and B, respectively. Cause osteopetrosis on injection into day-old chicks.

Mykines virus (MYKV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Kemerovo serogroup. Isolated from ticks, Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae.

Mynahpox virus (MYPV) A species in the genus Avipoxvirus. Isolated from a captive Rothschild's mynah, Leucospar rothschildii, shown to be pathogenic for starlings but not for chickens. The mynah is a member of the same family, Sturnidae, as starlings and may have acquired Starlingpox by direct contact.

Landolt M and Kocan RM (1976) J Wildl Dis 12, 353

myristylation A post-translational modification of virus proteins involving the covalent attachment of a myristic acid moiety.

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