Natural cowpox virus Synonym for

Pseudocowpox virus.

natural killer (NK) cells Large granular lymphocytes which play a role in innate immunity, and can cause lysis of virus-infected cells and tumor cells without conventional immunological specificity. Lack the phenotypic markers of both T cells and B cells, but express CD16 and CD56 as characteristic markers. They appear to have no memory, MHC-restric-tion or requirement for antibody. They can be activated by cytokines such as interleukin-2, and they secrete certain other cytokines such as interferon y and tumor necrosis factor a. Cytokine-activated NK cells are known as LAK cells. The mechanism of killing is similar to that of cytotoxic T cells. They contain granzymes and release perforins which are inserted into the membrane of the target cell. Their precise role in the immune response to virus infection is unclear. The target for NK cells on the surface of infected cells is not known.

Moretta L et al (1994) Adv Immun 55, 341

natural selection A principle put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859 that natural processes favor members of a species that are best adapted to their environment and tend to eliminate those that are unfitted to their environment. Synonym: Darwinian selection.

Navarro virus (NAVV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus. Isolated from the turkey-vulture, Cathartes aura, in Colombia. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

NB41A3 cells (CCL 147) A cell line established by cloning a mouse neuroblastoma, C-1300.

NCTC 2071 cells (CCL 1.1) Derived from NCTC clone 929 and established on protein-free chemically defined medium.

NCTC 3749 cells (CCL 46.1) The parent line P388 D1 was derived from a methyl-cholanthrene-induced lymphoid neoplasm (P388) originating in a DBA/2 mouse and converted to ascitic form in the first mouse transfer.

NCTC 4093 cells (CCL 63) Developed from two individual cells of a mouse embryo cell line isolated by the capillary cloning technique.

NCTC 4206 cells (CCL 14.2) Cell line adapted from a subline culture of B14FAF28-G3 (ATCC 14), derived from an adult female Chinese hamster cultured in serum-supplemented medium.

NCTC clone 1469 cells (CCL 9.1) A cell line derived from a subline of the original mouse liver strain NCTC 721, which was derived from the normal liver tissue of a 2-day-old male mouse.

NCTC clone 2472 cells (CCL 11) Derived from NCTC strain 1742 (subline VII) of the parent NCTC clone 1328. The parent line was derived from a culture of subcutaneous areolar and adipose connective tissue taken from a normal 82-day-old male C3H/HeN mouse.

NCTC clone 2555 cells (CCL 12) Derived from NCTC strain 2049 (subline III) of the parent NCTC clone 1328. The parent line was derived from a culture of subcutaneous areolar and adipose connective tissue taken from a normal 82-day-old male C3H/HeN mouse.

NCTC clone 3526 cells (CCL 7.2) A hetero-ploid cell line derived from LLC-MK2 cells and adapted to grow in a chemically defined medium.

NCTC clone 929 L cells (CCL 1) L strain is a heteroploid cell line derived from subcutaneous areolar and adipose tissue of a normal 100-day-old male C3H/An mouse, and was one of the first cell lines to be established in continuous culture. Clone 929 was established from the 95th passage.

Ndelle virus (NDEV) A tentative species in the genus Orbivirus isolated from Mus minutoides (musculoides) in Cameroon. Not known to cause disease in humans. Institut Pasteur, Dakar (1975) Annual Report

Ndumu virus (NDUV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in S Africa. No known association with human disease. Kills newborn mice on injection.

Kokernot RH et al (1961) Am J Trop Med Hyg 10, 383

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