Parainfluenza virus type 5 simian

Simian virus 5.

Parakana virus A possible species in the genus Phlebovirus, isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with human disease.

paralytic rabies A clinical course seen in about 20% of patients with acute rabies infection characterized by paresthesia, weakness and flaccid paralysis. Contrasts with furious rabies, the commonest form. Also called 'dumb rabies'.

Paramaribo virus A strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Antigenic group III. First isolated in Paramaribo, Surinam.

Young NA and Johnson KM (1969) Am J Epidemiol 89, 286

Paramastadenovirus A proposed third genus of the family Adenoviridae. Another suggested name is Atadenovirus.

Benko M and Harrach B (1998) Arch Virol 143/4, 830

Paramushir virus (PMRV) A serotype or strain of Sakhalin virus in the genus Nairovirus, belonging to the Sakhalin group. Isolated from the ticks, Ixodes sig-natus and I. putus, collected on Tyuleniy, Bering and Paramushir Islands in the north of the former Soviet Far East where there are colonies of guillemots, Uria aalge, and cormorants, Phalacrocorax pelag-icus. Pathogenic for suckling mice on i.c. injection. Replicates without CPE in chick embryo fibroblasts, human and BHK21 cells. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Lvov DK et al (1976) Arch Virol 51, 157

Paramyxoviridae A family of large negative-strand RNA viruses within the order Mononegavirales comprising two subfamilies: (1) Paramyxovirinae, containing three genera, Respirovirus, Morbillivirus and Rubulavirus; and (2) Pneumovirinae, containing the genera Pneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Differ from Orthomyxo-viridae in that: (1) they contain a larger helical nucleocapsid, up to 18 x 1000nm; (2) they have a genome consisting of a single continuous RNA molecule 15156-18 246 (Nipah virus) nt in length; and (3) their replication is not inhibited by actinomycin D. Virions consist of a helical ribonucleoprotein nucleocapsid contained in an approximately spherical envelope 150-200nm in diameter. Larger virions of 500-600nm in diameter and filamentous forms are occasionally observed. There are two surface glycoproteins, 8-12 nm in length: the fusion (F) and the attachment protein (G or H, or HN). The HN has both hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activity. There is also a non-glycosylated enveloped protein, M. There are three internal nucleocapsid-associated proteins, an RNA-binding protein (N or NP), a phosphoprotein (P)

Paramyxoviridae

and a large polymerase protein (L). Virus replication occurs in the cytoplasm. The RNA genome is transcribed into 6-10 separate mRNAs. Virus can be propagated in tissue cultures, usually with CPE, hemadsorption and syncytium formation. Most species also replicate in embryonated eggs. Paramyxoviruses cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and other animals. They can cause persistent infection in cultured cells and in animals and humans, as well as cell fusion and lysis of erythrocytes. The ability to fuse cells and produce hybrids is used in cell genetics and in the study of cellular regulation of growth.

Bellini WJ et al (1998) In Virology, vol. 1 of Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Ninth edition, edited by BWJ Mahy and L Collier. London: Arnold, p. 435 Kingsbury DW (1991) The Paramyxoviruses. New York: Plenum Press Portner A and Gupta KC (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1130

Paramyxovirinae A subfamily of the family Paramyxoviridae containing three genera: Respirovirus, Morbillivirus and Rubula-virus. Virion nucleocapsid diameter is 18nm, and the length of the surface spikes is 8nm. The genome includes up to seven transcriptional elements, in contrast to the Pneumovirinae, which have 10.

ParanĂ¡ virus (PARV) A species in the genus Arenavirus, a New World arenavirus belonging to the Tacaribe complex. Isolated from the rodent, Oryzomys bucci-natus, in Paraguay. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Paranati virus An unclassified virus isolated from sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

Parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus (PVNZ) A virus isolated from farmed red deer in New Zealand. The genome DNA differs by restriction analysis from other parapoxviruses, and on this basis PVNZ is a separate species in the genus Parapoxvirus.

Robinson AJ and Mercer AA (1995) Virology 208, 812

Parapoxvirus A genus of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. Consists of viruses of ungulates which may infect humans. Infectivity ether-sensitive. Virion ovoid, 220-300 x 140-170nm. External coat and filaments are thicker than in vaccinia and are arranged in a regular spiral coil consisting of a single thread. Species show serological cross-reactivity. Hemagglutinin not produced. Type species Orf virus. Other species are Bovine papular stomatitis virus, Pseudocowpox virus, Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand and Squirrel para-poxvirus.

Synonym: orf subgroup viruses.

pararetroviruses A name suggested but not widely adopted for two families of DNA viruses that use reverse transcription during their replication cycle; Hepadnaviridae and the plant virus family, Caulimoviridae.

Parauapebas virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Changuinola virus. Not known to cause disease in humans.

paravaccinia virus See Pseudocowpox virus.

Parechovirus A genus in the family Picornaviridae, containing one species, Human parechovirus, with two serotypes, human parechovirus 1 and human pare-chovirus 2 (formerly these were called human echovirus 22 and 23). The genus was formed to recognize distinct biological and molecular properties of these viruses compared with other enteroviruses in the family. Parechoviruses have characteristic effects on their host cell and cause a somewhat different spectrum of clinical disease with gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. In contrast to other picornaviruses, the protein 1AB is not cleaved during maturation, and is not myristylated. The capsid has only three proteins, 1AB, 1C and 1D. Ljungan virus is a possible member of the genus.

Stanway G et al (2000) Rev Med Virol 10, 57 Stanway G and Hyypia T (1999) J Virol 73, 5249

paresis Slight or incomplete paralysis, an early symptom of clinical rabies.

Parvovirus

Parixa virus An unclassified virus isolated from a bat, Lonchophylla thomasi, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Not associated with disease in humans.

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