Rabok virus See Tanjong Rabok virus

Raccoon parvovirus (RPV) A species in the genus Parvovirus.

raccoon papillomavirus A species in the genus Papillomavirus. During a field trial of vaccinia-rabies recombinant oral vaccine for raccoons, on Parramore Island, VA, USA, two of 53 live-trapped raccoons had papillomatous lesions of the skin. Papillomavirus antigens were detected in the skin lesions by immunohistochem-istry using a broadly cross-reactive rabbit polyclonal antibody.

Hamir AN et al (1995) J Vet Diag Invest 7, 549

Raccoonpox virus (RCNV) A species in the genus Orthopoxvirus. Isolated from raccoons, Procyon lotor, in Maryland, USA. Experimental inoculation of raccoons resulted in a silent infection and antibody production. Injection into the footpads of suckling mice caused swelling and paralysis of the hind legs. Replicates on the CAM producing pinpoint white pocks, but growth decreases on passage. Replicates in Vero cells with CPE. Analysis of the genome suggests that both Raccoonpox and Volepox are phylogenetically distant from other orthopoxvirus species that are not indigenous to the Americas.

Knight JC et al (1992) Virology 190, 423

raccoon rabies virus A strain of Rabies virus that was introduced by hunters from Florida to Virginia, has become enzootic in raccoons, Procyon lotor, and has spread throughout the eastern USA during the past 20 years.

Rupprecht CE and Smith JS (1994) Semin Virol 5, 155

radial immunodiffusion A serological test in which the antigen, placed in wells in agar gel containing antibody, diffuses radially into the agar and the resulting antigen-antibody complex forms a halo or ring of precipitate around the well.

radioimmunoassay (RIA) A serological test in which one of the reactants, usually the antibody, is labeled with a radioisotope; 125I is the most commonly used. As the amount of isotope precipitated with the antigen-antibody complex can be measured, it is a very accurate and sensitive method for quantifying immuno-precipitation.

radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) A method used for characterizing virus-induced protein synthesis in infected cells. A radioactive amino acid is added to the infected cell culture, usually for 1 h; then the cells are harvested, lyzed and reacted with a specific antiserum. The radiolabeled immune complexes are separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized on the basis of gel mobility. Radioactive amino acids used for RIP are usually 35S-methionine or 35S-cysteine for general labeling, or 3H-mannose for labeling glycoproteins.

Radi virus (RADIV) A tentative species in the genus Vesiculovirus. Isolated from

Phlebotomus perfiliewi in central Italy. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

rage virus Synonym for Rabies virus.

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