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S 1954-847-32 virus (TURV) A strain of

Turlock virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

SA virus A designation given to a virus isolated in hamster brain from nasal washings of a patient with a 'common cold'. A strain of parainfluenza virus type 5. Pathogenic for hamsters on i.c. injection. Antigenically identical to Simian virus SV5 and DA virus.

Schultz EW and Habel K (1959) J Immun 82, 274

SA6 virus Synonym for cercopithecine her-pesvirus 3.

SA8 virus Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2.

SA10 virus Synonym for simian parainfluenza virus type 3.

SA11 virus Type species of the genus Rotavirus. See Rotaviruses group A.

SA12 virus Synonym for polyomavirus papionis 1. Virus isolated from baboons.

SA15 virus Synonym for cercopithecine herpesvirus 4.

SA virus series See simian viruses (SA series).

SAAAr5133 virus (OLIV) A strain of Olifantsvlei virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

SAAn3518 virus (TETEV) A strain of Tete virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

SAAr53 virus (SIMV) A strain of Simbu virus in the genus Bunyavirus.

Sabia virus (SABV) A species in the genus Arenavirus. Isolated in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1990 from a fatal case of viral hemor-rhagic fever. A laboratory technician handling the agent became infected with the virus and a third case occurred in a research worker at Yale University, USA during characterization of the virus. Both recovered, the third case after treatment with ribavirin. The presumed rodent vector of the virus is not known. Synonym: SP H 114202 virus.

Barry M et al (1995) New Engl J Med 333, 294 Lisieux T et al (1994) Lancet 343, 391 Vasconcelos PFC et al (1993) Rev Inst Med Trop, Sao Paulo 35, 521

Sabin vaccine A live attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine containing all three serotypes of poliovirus. Given orally.

Sabin virus (SFNV) A strain of Sandfly fever Naples virus in the genus Phlebovirus.

Sabo virus (SABOV) A strain of Akabane virus in the genus Bunyavirus. Belongs to the Simbu serogroup. Isolated from cattle, goats and flies of Culicoides sp in Nigeria. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Saboya virus (SABV) A species in the genus Flavivirus. Member of the Yellow fever virus serogroup. Isolated from Kemp's gerbil, Tatera kempi, in Senegal. Antibodies present in many mammals, birds and reptiles. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Sacramento River chinook salmon disease virus See Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.

saddle back fever A pattern of fever frequently seen during infections with arthropod viruses. The patient's temperature rises and falls, then a second wave of fever occurs, often with no other disease symptoms.

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy, SAH) An inhibitor of methylation, e.g. of nucleic acids, as it is an analog of S-adenosyl-l-methionine.

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet, SAM)

A high-energy compound derived from ATP that is an intracellular source of activated methyl groups including those used for RNA or DNA methylation.

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet, SAM)

Stimulates transcription in some viruses, e.g. cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses. Also required by class I restriction endonucleases for their initial binding.

Sagiyama virus (SAGV) A strain of Ross River virus in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in Japan. On injection kills newborn mice. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

SAH Abbreviation for S-adenosyl-l-homo-cysteine.

SAIDS-D Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-D. A rare fatal immuno-suppressive disease syndrome which occurs naturally and can be induced experimentally in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by infection with Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, a D-type retrovirus in the family Betaretrovirus. The disease is distinct from the simian AIDSlike disease caused by Simian immunodeficiency virus in the genus Lentivirus.

Brody BA et al (1992) J Virol 66, 3950 Sommerfelt MA and Hunter E (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1513

Saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1) A species in the genus Simplexvirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Originally isolated from throat swabs and autopsy material from marmosets, Tamarinus nigricollis, in which it causes a fatal disease. Also isolated from owl monkeys, Aotus sp, and squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sp. The latter is the natural host for the virus, and may excrete virus intermittently for long periods. Only minor disease is caused in spider and squirrel monkeys, but experimental or laboratory contact infection of owl monkeys and marmosets causes a generalized fatal disease. The virus replicates in mouse and chick embryo and rabbit and marmoset kidney cell cultures. Pocks are produced on the CAM. It is pathogenic for rabbits and adult mice given i.c., and for suckling mice and hamsters given i.p. Synonyms: callitrichid herpesvirus; herpesvirus M; herpesvirus platyrrhinae type; herpesvirus T (tamarinus); marmoset herpesvirus; M virus.

Leib DA et al (1987) Arch Virol 93, 287

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (SaHV-2) Type species of the genus Rhadinovirus. A ubiquitous infection of squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus, in S America, first isolated in 1968 from an owl monkey kidney tumor, and also from primary kidney cells derived from a squirrel monkey. Not pathogenic in squirrel monkeys, in which there is a lifelong persistent infection, but highly oncogenic causing leukemia and lymphosarcomas in many New World primates including marmosets, owl monkeys, capuchin monkeys, spider monkeys and howler monkeys. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from these species are immortalized in vitro to interleukin-2 independent growth. The virus genome is unusual and occurs in two forms, M and H, in the virion. M genome is linear double-stranded DNA, 150kb in length, with a unique region of L-DNA (112kb; 36% G+C) flanked by multiple 1.4 kb repeat units (72% G+C) of H-DNA. The H genome is also 150kb long, but contains only repeat units of H-DNA arranged head-to-tail. Immortalized cells may contain only the left-hand end of L-DNA, implicating these sequences in oncogenicity. Natural infection is perpetuated by horizontal transmission from adult to young monkeys through saliva. No human infections have been reported. Synonyms: herpesvirus saimiri 2; squirrel monkey herpesvirus.

Hilliard J (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 714 Trimble JJ and Desrosiers RC (1991) Adv Cancer Res 56, 335

Saint-Floris virus (SAFV) A tentative species in the genus Phlebovirus, belonging to the sandfly fever virus group. Isolated from a gerbil of Tatera sp in the Central African Republic. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) A

species in the genus Flavivirus, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup. The wild host is birds. Transmission by mosquitoes, Culex sp. Occurs in Canada, eastern and western USA, Central and S America, sometimes causing serious outbreaks of encephalitis. In humans many infections result in brief febrile illness but encephalitis may

salmonis virus occur, especially in urban outbreaks in eastern USA, which reappear about every 10 years. Sequelae are uncommon. Disease in horses not reported. Injection i.c. into certain strains of mice causes encephalitis. Virus can be propagated in eggs. Causes diffuse edematous lesions with proliferative and necrotic elements on the CAM. Replication occurs in cell cultures of chick, mouse and other species with CPE. No effective vaccine available for humans. Synonym: St Louis encephalitis virus.

Monath TP and Tsai TF (1987) Am J Trop Med Hyg 37, 40s

Sakhalin group viruses Antigenically related species in the genus Nairovirus, isolated from ixodid ticks taken from sea birds' nests.

Sakhalin virus (SAKV) A species in the genus Nairovirus. The first member of the Sakhalin serogroup. Isolated from the tick, Ixodes putus, collected on Tyuleniy Island off the south-east coast of Sakhalin Island where there is a colony of guillemots, Uria aalge. Geographical distribution of the virus appears to coincide with that of I. putus and probably involves the Kuril, Commodore and Aleutian Islands and the northern coasts of Europe, Canada and USA. Antibodies are present in guillemots but not in a variety of other birds. Replicates in experimentally infected Culex modestus mosquitoes. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Lvov DK et al (1972) Arch Ges Virusforsch 38, 133

Salanga poxvirus (SGV) An unassigned virus in the family Poxviridae. Isolated from a Kaiser's rat, Aethomys kaiseri med-icatus, in the Central African Republic.

Salanga virus (SGAV) An unassigned ungrouped virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Isolated in suckling mice from the blood of a young specimen of the Kaiser's rat, Aethomys kaiseri medica-tus, trapped in Salanga, Central African Republic. No hemagglutinin detected. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Salehabad virus (SALV) A species in the genus Phlebovirus, the first member of the

Salehabad complex, sandfly fever serogroup. Isolated from female sandflies of Phlebotomus sp in Iran. Probably also present in Pakistan, as antibodies are present in humans and sheep. Not reported to cause disease in the wild.

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