Septicemia anserum exudative virus

Synonym for Derzsy's disease of geese, caused by Goose parvovirus.

sequence The order of nucleotides in RNA or DNA or of amino acids in a polypep-tide.

sequencing Determination of the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid or of amino acids in a protein. See DNA sequencing, Sanger method, Maxam and Gilbert method and Edman degradation.

serine-threonine kinase

serine-threonine kinase A cellular enzyme related to protein kinase C which is a target for several oncogenes, including Akt, Raf and Ras. Akt is the transforming gene of AKT8 virus, Raf is the transforming gene of murine retrovirus 3611-MSV, and Ras is the transforming gene of the Harvey and Kirsten species of murine sarcoma virus.

seroarcheology The use of sera from older adults to detect what viruses may have been circulating in the past. Especially valuable for studies of influenza pandemics in the 19th and early 20th century.

Mulder J and Masurel N (1958) Lancet 1, 810

seroconversion Acquisition of detectable antibodies to a virus in the serum of an individual.

serodiagnosis Diagnosis of a virus infection based upon seroconversion. Confirmation of infection ideally requires two samples of serum, one early (within a few days) after exposure and one convalescent (a few weeks) after exposure. A four-fold rise in serum antibody titer against the infecting virus is taken as confirmation of infection with that virus.

serogroups Groups of viruses that cross-react with each other antigenically.

serological surveillance The measurement of serum antibody levels in a population to look for the presence of a particular infectious agent.

serology The study of antibody levels in sera of an individual or a population.

seron A name proposed but not adopted for any group comprised of viruses with antigenic similarity which can be demonstrated serologically.

serotype A measure of the antigenic properties of a virus, important in virus characterization. Determined by raising antisera against the virus in rabbits or other species, and using the antisera in neutralization, immunofluorescence or tests to compare it to other viruses.

Serra do Navio virus (SDNV) A strain of California encephalitis virus in the genus

Bunyavirus, belonging to the California encephalitis virus group. Isolated from mosquitoes, Aedes fulvus, in Amapa Territory of Brazil. Not reported to cause disease.

Serra Norte virus An unassigned virus isolated from the blood of febrile patients in the Amazon region of Brazil.

Serra Sul virus An unassigned virus isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Brazil.

serum-free medium Cell culture medium without serum. After a period in serumfree medium, cells can be synchronized by addition of serum, stimulating cell division.

serum hepatitis virus An old name for Hepatitis B virus. The name derives from the fact that the virus was often transmitted by serum in blood transfusions or repeated needle use in the process of giving injections, skin scarification (vaccination), ear-piercing or tattooing with inadequately sterilized instruments.

serum neutralization Inhibition of virus infectivity by antiserum.

SF-4 virus See Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 and shipping fever virus.

SF virus Abbreviation for Semliki Forest virus.

SflEp (NBL-11) cells (CCL 68) A cell line initiated from the minced ear epidermis of an adult male cottontail rabbit which had papillomatosis.

Shamonda virus (SHAV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Isolated from cattle and Culicoides sp in Nigeria. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Shark River virus Strain of Patois virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Patois serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in Florida, USA, Mexico and Guatemala. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

sheatfish iridovirus (Iridoviridae) A strain of iridovirus affecting sheatfish, Silurus glanis.

Ahne W et al (1990) Zentbl Vet Med 37, 87 Siwicki AK et al (1999) Virus Res 63, 115

sialyloligosaccharides sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever of cattle virus Synonym for Ovine herpesvirus 2.

sheep papillomavirus (SPV) See Ovine papillomavirus.

sheeppox subgroup virus Synonym for capripoxvirus.

Sheeppox virus (SPPV) A species in the genus Capripoxvirus. Causes a generalized pox disease in sheep, often with tracheitis and involvement of the lungs. Mortality 5-50%. Economically important. Occurs in parts of Africa, Asia, Middle East, southern Europe and Iberian peninsula. Only sheep are infected naturally. Virus is closely related antigenically to Goatpox virus and Lumpy skin disease virus. Difficult to adapt to growth in eggs. Replicates in sheep, goat and calf cell cultures with CPE. An attenuated virus vaccine is used successfully, and has been genetically engineered to protect against rinderpest, in addition to sheep and goatpox and lumpy skin disease. Synonyms: Clavelee virus; Isiolo virus; Kedong virus; variola ovina virus.

Gershon PD et al (1989) J Virol 63, 4703 Kitching RP (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1376 Romero CH et al (1993) Vaccine 11, 737

sheep pulmonary adenomatosis-associated herpesvirus Synonym for ovine her-pesvirus 1.

sheep rotaviruses Members of group A and B rotaviruses, family Reoviridae.

Shiant Islands virus (SHIV) A strain of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Great Island complex.

shifty sequence A short nucleotide sequence motif which facilitates riboso-mal frameshifting during expression of viral mRNA. Present in the replicase gene of coronaviruses, where the sequence is UUUAAAC. See also slippery sequence.

Shine-Dalgarno sequence See ribosome binding site.

shingles A painful local condition with rash in the region (dermatome) served by one nerve root. May follow exposure to Human herpesvirus 3 (varicella-zoster virus), but usually occurs as a reactivation of latent infection, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Synonym: zona; zoster.

shipping fever virus A bovine strain of the species parainfluenza virus type 3. Causes respiratory disease in cattle, especially under stress. Synonym: SF-4 virus.

Frank GH and Marshall RG (1973) J Am Vet

Med Assoc 163, 858

Shokwe virus (SHOV) A strain of

Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Bunyamwera virus group. Isolated from Aedes cumminsii in Natal, S Africa. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Shope fibroma virus Synonym for Rabbit fibroma virus.

Shope papillomavirus Synonym for rabbit oral papillomavirus.

Show fever virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

Shuni virus (SHUV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Isolated from humans, sheep and cattle in Nigeria and S Africa. Has been associated with disease in humans.

sialic acid Synonym for N-acetylneu-raminic acid. See neuraminidase.

sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) A strain of Rat coronavirus.

sialyloligosaccharides Sugar-containing receptor molecules on the surface of normal cells to which influenza virus hemagglutinins bind. They include: (a2, 6)sialyl lactose; N-acetylneuraminic acid-a2, 6-galactose; and (a2, 3)sialyl lactose. Influenza viruses vary in their receptor specificity. Most avian influenza viruses bind preferentially to the NeuAc a2, 3Gal linkage but most human influenza viruses prefer binding to the NeuAca2, 6 Gal linkage.

Couceiro JNSS et al (1993) Virus Res 29, 155

siamese cobra herpesvirus

siamese cobra herpesvirus Synonym for elapid herpesvirus 1.

sigla A contracted form of sigilla (Latin: sig-illum = seal). In virology, a device formed of letters, especially initials, or other characters taken from the principal words in a compound term, e.g. papovavirus.

Sigma virus (SIGMAV) An unassigned animal rhabdovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae which infects insects. The virions are slightly smaller than Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Congenitally transmitted through the germinal cells, and confers carbon dioxide sensitivity upon Drosophila melanogaster.

signal peptide A short amino acid sequence at the N-terminus of a protein, which is recognized by cellular membranes as the signal for glycosylation of the protein. The signal peptide is cleaved off by a signal peptidase during maturation of the protein.

Lingappa VR et al (1979) Nature 281, 117

signal recognition particle (SRP) A multi-subunit protein present in the cytosol that binds to ribosomes shortly after they have synthesized the signal peptide and serves to bind the ribosomes to the endo-plasmic reticulum. Recognizes both the N-terminal of the nascent polypeptide chain and a receptor on the rough endo-plasmic reticulum (RER) and halts further translation until the ribosome has become bound to the RER.

signal sequence A specific sequence, immediately following the initiation codon, in the mRNA coding for a secretory protein. It encodes a hydrophobic peptide of 15-30 amino acids which binds to the signal recognition particle and is directed to the RER. As translation continues, the signal sequence is extruded across the membrane of the RER, and the signal peptide is cleaved off the nascent protein by a specific signal peptidase enzyme.

signal transducing activators of transcription (STATs) Cellular transcription factors that become activated in response to interferons and migrate to the cell nucleus where they bind to specific interferon response elements in promoter sites upstream of interferon-inducible genes, activating their transcription.

Sikhote-Alyn virus (SAV) An unassigned virus in the family Picornaviridae related to Syr-Darya Valley fever virus. Isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from a wild boar in the Primorie region of Russia. The virus had properties of a cardiovirus.

Lvov DK et al (1978) Acta Virol 22, 458

silent infection An infection with no apparent signs or symptoms.

silurid herpesvirus 1 See Ictalurid herpesvirus.

Silverwater virus (SILV) An unassigned virus in the family Bunyaviridae. Serologically related to Kaisodi and Lanjan viruses. Isolated from ticks removed from hares in Manitoulin Island and Powassan district of northern Ontario, Canada. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Simbu serogroup viruses A group of 24 serologically related viruses in the genus Bunyavirus. They are: Aino virus Akabane virus Buttonwillow virus Douglas virus Facey's Paddock virus Ingwavuma virus Inini virus Kaikalur virus Manzanilla virus Mermet virus Oropouche virus Para virus Peaton virus Sabo virus Sango virus Sathuperi virus Shamonda virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Thimiri virus Tinaroo virus Utinga virus Utive virus Yaba-7 virus

Simbu virus (SIMV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Isolated from mosquitoes in S

Africa, Central African Republic and Cameroon. Antibodies found in humans but the virus is not reported to cause disease.

simian adenoviruses 1 to 27 (SAdV-1 to -27) Strains or serotypes in the genus Mastadenovirus with 27 recognized serotypes, 1-27. Many strains were found because they produced CPE in kidney cell cultures of Asian, African and New World monkeys. Several types have been associated with respiratory and enteric disease in baboons, rhesus, Erythrocebus and Cercopithecus monkeys, but most infections are silent. Some strains are oncogenic in newborn hamsters. Division into groups is possible on the basis of agglutination of rat and rhesus erythrocytes. See Table S1.

Kalter SS et al (1979) Personal communication Merkow LP and Slifkin M (1973) Prog Exp Tumor Res 18, 67

simian agent 12 (SAV-12) A species in the genus Polyomavirus. A natural infection of the chacma baboon, Papio ursinus, in Africa.

Valis JD et al (1977) Infect Immun 18, 247

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