Mason-Pfizer monkey virus in the genus Betaretrovirus. There are five serotypes based on neutralization by antisera. Causes immunosuppression (SAIDS-D) in macaque monkeys and originally called simian AIDS D-type (SAIDS-D) virus. Virions have a type D morphology and lack prominent spikes. The genome is typical of a retrovirus, with the structure 5' -gag-pro-pol-env-3' and no oncogenes. Reverse transcriptase has a preference for magnesium rather than manganese and is primed by tRNALys. Virions induce cell fusion in cell cultures, and the virus can be titrated on the basis of induction of syncytia. Infection of macaque monkeys is associated with severe and often fatal immunosuppres-sion. Some strains also induce retroperitoneal fibromatosis, a proliferation of vascular fibrous tissue with some similarities to Kaposi's sarcoma seen in human AIDS patients.
Fine D and Schochetman G (1978) Cancer Res 38, 3123
Sommerfelt MA and Hunter E (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1518
simian vacuolating virus Synonym for Simian virus 40.
simian varicella virus Synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9.
Simian virus 5 (SV-5) A species in the genus Rubulavirus. A virus originally isolated from primary cultures of monkey kidney cells which has been used extensively as a model paramyxovirus. Monkeys are probably not the natural host, and the close relationship to canine parainfluenza virus suggests that SV5 may be a canine virus or a subtype of Human parainfluenza virus 2. The genome encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein.
Simian virus 10 (SV-10) A species in the genus Respirovirus. Isolated from the mouth of a samango monkey, Cerco-pithecus mitis. Agglutinates human, bovine and guinea pig erythrocytes. Synonym: SA10 virus.
Simian virus 12 (SV-12) A species in the genus Polyomavirus.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) A species in the genus Polyomavirus. A natural and silent infection of rhesus, cynomolgus and Cercopithecus monkeys. Often isolated from kidney cell cultures. Replicates in a variety of cell cultures but when first isolated was cytopathic for grivet monkey kidney cell cultures only, producing vac-uolation of the cytoplasm. Does not hemagglutinate. Foci of transformed cells appear in human, bovine, porcine, hamster, rabbit and mouse cell cultures inoculated with the virus. A silent infection in humans, although antibodies are formed. Produces tumors, mainly sarcomas on injection into newborn hamsters, grivets, baboons and rhesus monkeys. Was a contaminant of certain early batches of polio vaccine but caused no disease. Has been used extensively for studies of viral oncogenesis, but there is no convincing evidence of a role for SV 40 virus in any human cancers. Synonym: simian vacuolating virus.
Shah KV (2000) Rev Med Virol 10, 31
Simian virus 41 (SV-41) A species in the genus Rubulavirus. A virus isolated from primary cultures of monkey kidney cells. Antibodies to SV41 are found in the human population, and the virus appears to be closely related to Human parainfluenza virus 2.
Tsurodome M et al (1990) Virology 179, 738
simian viruses Viruses isolated from nonhuman primates. Some have been isolated from excreta or diseased tissues
Simian viruses but most have appeared as cytopathic viruses in cultures of normal tissues. The large number of monkeys used to provide cell cultures has resulted in many isolates which form a mixed group of DNA and RNA viruses. Two numbered series have been described: simian agents (SA viruses) mainly from African monkeys, and simian viruses (SV viruses) mainly from Asian monkeys. Differentiation into groups was at first made according to the type of CPE produced,
Table S3. Simian viruses but most have now been assigned to various families. See Table S3. See also simian adenoviruses. Some SV and SA numbers are missing because they referred to isolates which were later found not to be viruses, or identical to previous isolates, or have been lost.
Hull RN (1968) Virol Monogr 2, 124 pp Kalter SS et al (1995) Personal communication Malherbe H and Herwin R (1963) S Afr Med J 37, 407
SA series of viruses (simian agents): SA1 Foamy virus
SA2 Produces CPE similar to SA1 but there are nuclear inclusions SA3 Reovirus type 1
SA4 Enterovirus. Isolated from the intestinal tract of Cercopithecus aethiops.
Serologically related to SV4 and SV28. (Enterovirus S-16) SA5 Enterovirus. Isolated from the intestinal tract of Cercopithecus aethiops.
(Enterovirus S-17) SA6 cercopithecine herpesvirus 3 SA7 Adenovirus (Adenovirus S-16) SA8 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2
SA9 Isolated from the mouth of a monkey. CPE resembles that produced by a reovirus but it does not agglutinate human O erythrocytes SA10 Parainfluenza virus type 3. Isolated from the mouth of a samango monkey, Cercopithecus mitis.
Agglutinates human O, guinea pig and bovine erythrocytes (Simian virus 10) SA11 Rotavirus SA12 Vervet monkey virus
SA13 Is now lost. CPE resembles that of Measles virus SA14 Is now lost
SA15 Is now lost. Herpesvirus isolated from baboons, Papio ursinus
SA16 Is now lost. Isolated from vervet monkeys. Produced eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and was difficult to passage SA17 Adenovirus. (Adenovirus S-17) SA18 Adenovirus. (Adenovirus S-18)
SV series of viruses (simian viruses):
SV1 Adenovirus. Type 1 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-1)
SV2 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-1)
SV4 Enterovirus. Serologically related to SA4 and SV28 viruses
SV5 Parainfluenza virus type 5. Antigenically identical to SA virus and DA virus. (Simian virus 5)
SV6 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-2)
SV11 Adenovirus. Type 2 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-2)
SV12 Reovirus type 1
SV13 Foamy virus
SV15 Adenovirus. Type 3 of hemagglutination group 2. (Adenovirus S-3)
SV16 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-3)
SV17 Adenovirus. Type 4 of hemagglutination group 2. Isolated from a monkey, Erythrocebus patas. (Adenovirus S-4)
SV18 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-4)
SV19 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca fascicularis. (Enterovirus S-5)
SV20 Adenovirus. Type 5 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-5)
SV21 Enterovirus. Identical to SV4
SV22 Proved not to be a new isolate
SV23 Adenovirus. Type 6 of hemagglutination group 2. (Adenovirus S-6)
SV24 An ameba of the genus Acanthamoeba
SV25 Adenovirus. Type 7 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-7)
Table S3. Simian viruses (continued)
SV26 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-6)
SV27 Adenovirus. Similar or identical to SV31
SV28 Enterovirus. Isolated from normal kidney cell culture of Macaca mulatta. Serologically related to
SA4 and SV4 viruses. (Enterovirus S-7)
SV29 Proved not to be a new isolate
SV30 Adenovirus. Type 8 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-8)
SV31 Adenovirus. Type 9 of hemagglutination group 2. (Adenovirus S-9)
SV32 Adenovirus. Type 10 of hemagglutination group 2. (Adenovirus S-10)
SV33 Adenovirus. (Adenovirus S-11)
SV34 Adenovirus. Type 12 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-12)
SV35 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-8)
SV36 Adenovirus. Type 13 of hemagglutination group 1. (Adenovirus S-13)
SV37 Adenovirus. Type 14 of hemagglutination group 2. (Adenovirus S-14)
SV38 Adenovirus. Type 15 of hemagglutination group 3. (Adenovirus S-15)
SV39 Identical to SV23
SV40 Polyomavirus species. See Simian virus 40
SV41 Similar to SV5 (Simian virus 41)
SV42 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca fascicularis. (Enterovirus S-9)
SV43 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca fascicularis. (Enterovirus S-10)
SV44 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-11)
SV45 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca fascicularis. (Enterovirus S-12)
SV46 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca sp. (Enterovirus S-13)
SV47 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca fascicularis.(Enterovirus S-14)
SV49 Enterovirus. Isolated from intestinal tract of Macaca mulatta. (Enterovirus S-15) SV50-SV58 Probably isolated by Heberling, but not included in the final SV series.
(Heberling RL and Cheerer FS (1965) Am J Epidemiol 81, 106)
SV59 Reovirus type 3. Sent to Hull as agent 59 and numbered SV59 even before SV41 was reached.
Simplexvirus A genus in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpes-virinae. Human herpesvirus 1 is the type species and the Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, Bovine herpesvirus 2 and simian herpes-virus B are members. Contains viruses of mammals which show a considerable degree of serological cross-reactivity (including neutralization) and some genetic homology.
Synonym: herpes simplex virus group.
Sindbis virus (SINV) A species in the genus Alphavirus. Probably a natural infection of birds but antibodies are found in humans and domestic ungulates. May be associated with fever in humans. Closely related to Whataroa virus and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Replicates in eggs killing the embryo, and in cell cultures of chick, human and monkey tissues with CPE. Experimentally lethal for suckling mice. Causes myositis and encephalitis in infant mice. Found in Egypt, S Africa, India, Malaysia, the Philippines and Australia.
Schlesinger MJ (1999) In Encyclopedia of Virology, Second edition, edited by A Granoff and RG Webster. London: Academic Press, p. 1656
single radial hemolysis (SRH) A type of hemagglutination inhibition test, in which the virus-red cell combination is immobilized in an agarose gel. Test sera are added to the wells cut in the gel and antibody diffuses radially. With addition of complement, antibodies lyse the red cells, and the zone of hemolysis has an area proportional to the amount of antibody. Widely used for diagnosis of anti-rubella virus antibodies.
single-stranded DNA viruses There are two families: Parvoviridae, in which the genome in most species is + strand but in some there are + and - strands in different viral particles (on extraction the strands can form double strands); and Circoviridae, where the single-stranded DNA genome is circular.
single-stranded RNA viruses The families containing viruses which affect vertebrates are:
Arenaviridae ambisense, 2 segments Arteriviridae + strand, unsegmented Astroviridae + strand, unsegmented
Bornaviridae - strand, unsegmented Bunyaviridae - or ambisense, 3 segments
Caliciviridae + strand, unsegmented
Coronaviridae + strand, unsegmented Filoviridae - strand, unsegmented
Flaviviridae + strand, unsegmented
Nodaviridae + strand, 2 segments
Orthomyxoviridae - strand, 6, 7 or 8 segments
Paramyxoviridae - strand, unsegmented Picornaviridae + strand, unsegmented Retroviridae + strand, unsegmented, diploid
Rhabdoviridae - strand, unsegmented Togaviridae + strand, unsegmented
Sin Nombre virus (SNV) A species in the genus Hantavirus. The principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first recognized in the Four Corners region of the USA in June-August, 1993. Antigenically related to, but distinct from, other hantaviruses. Isolated from the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (grassland form), which is the natural reservoir species in N America. The infection is spread to humans (who are dead-end hosts and do not transmit the virus), through contact with urine or other excreta of chronically infected mice. Infection results in an acute pulmonary distress syndrome with a fatality rate of 50%. No specific treatment is available. Control is by avoiding close contact with infected deer mice or their excreta. A Mid-western variant, Blue River virus, has also been recognized in Indiana and Oklahoma, where the host is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Another variant strain, Monongahela virus, was identified in P. maniculatus from the north-eastern USA. Numerous related viruses are now also recognized in Canada, and Central and S America. Classification is by phylogenetic analysis, requiring evidence of at least 7% difference in amino acid sequence of the precursor glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein sequences to describe a new species.
Synonyms: Four Corners virus; Muerto Canyon virus.
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Ksiazek TG et al (1995) Am J Trop Med Hyg 52, 117
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sinus histocytosis syndrome A rare disease with massive lymphadenopathy (also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease), which might be linked to Human herpesvirus 6 infection.
Levine PH et al (1992) J Infect Dis 166, 291
SIRC cells (CCL 60) A heteroploid cell line derived from the cornea of a normal rabbit.
SISPA (Sequence-independent, single-primer amplification) A method for non-selective cloning of sequences present in minute quantity that was used in the discovery of the Hepatitis E and Hepatitis G virus genomes. cDNA molecules are blunt-ended and ligated to a 5'-staggered, 3'-blunt-ended double-stranded oligonucleotide. A single primer (one of the linker/primer strands) is used for non-selective amplification of all the cDNA molecules, which can then be expressed in vitro and their protein products screened with a specific antiserum (immunoscreening).
Reyes GR and Kim JP (1991) Mol Cell Probe 5, 473
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