St Abbs Head virus Sahv A strain of

Uukuniemi virus in the genus Phlebovirus, belonging to the Uukuniemi serogroup. Isolated from engorged female ticks, Ixodes uriae, collected from a sea bird colony at St Abbs Head, Scotland, UK.

St Abbs Head virus (SAHV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus.

standard virus Term introduced by von Magnus to describe complete virus as opposed to defective virus.

Starlingpox virus (SLPV) A species in the genus Avipoxvirus.

Landolt M and Kocan RM (1976) J Wildl Dis 12, 353

start codon The trinucleotide in an mRNA at which ribosomes start the process of translation and which sets the reading frame for the translation. In eukaryotes it is AUG which is decoded as methionine. In prokaryotes AUG (giving N-formyl-methionine) is the most common start codon but GUG (valine) is sometimes used. See also Kozak sequence. Synonym: initiation codon.

STAT Signal transducer and activator of transcription. Induced in cells by interferon. Bind to DNA and cause transcription of interferon-stimulated genes.

statolon A fermentation product of the fungus, Penicillium stoloniferum, and a potent interferon inducer. This activity is due to the presence of a double-stranded RNA viral genome. Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated the presence of numerous particles of typical virus morphology, about 30nm in diameter. They are reported to be serologically unrelated to helenine particles.

Kleinschmidt WI et al (1968) Nature 220, 167

stavudine 2',3'-Didehydro-2'-deoxythymi-dine (D4T). A potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in vitro. Similar in its action to AZT.

Hitchcock MJM (1991) Antivir Chem Chemother 2, 125

Riddler SA et al (1995) Antiviral Res 27,189

steady-state infection Infection in a cell culture where both virus and cell multiplication proceed. Most or all of the cells are infected, virus is released continuously from the cells, but there is no CPE. The infection cannot be cured by adding antiviral antibody to the culture medium. Superinfection with another virus is possible but there may be complementation or interference. Examples are numerous among viruses which mature by budding: Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae and Retroviridae. See carrier cultures.

Hotchin J (1974) Prog Med Virol 18, 81

Steelhead picornavirus A virus isolated in Washington State, USA from the ovarian fluid of steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Grows in a variety of fish cell lines. No association with disease.

stellavirus Synonym for rotavirus.

stickleback virus (SBV) A tentative species in the genus Ranavirus. Isolated from the three-spine stickleback, Gasterostelus aculeatus. An apparently identical virus was isolated from an amphibian, the red-legged frog, Rana aurora, suggesting that fish iridoviruses can also infect amphibia.

sticky ends The single-stranded ends on DNA produced by many type II restriction endonucleases. They may be either 5' or 3' extensions of the DNA molecule.

stimulon A putative factor produced in adenovirus-infected cell cultures which increases the replication of latent rat virus and H-1 virus. Can be demonstrated in virus-free extracts of infected cells but not in extracts of uninfected cells. Stimulon is inactivated by trypsin, but not by DNase or RNase.

Brailovsky C and Chany C (1965) CR Acad Sci Paris 260, 2634; 261, 4282

St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) See Saint Louis encephalitis virus.

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