Superhelical DNA See supercoiled DNA

superinfection exclusion The inability of two related viruses to replicate in the same cell. The presence of one replicating virus prevents the second virus from replicating. May be the result of entry exclusion because the cell receptors are blocked, although other factors such as immunity may also play a role.

supernatant The liquid above sedimented material or above a precipitate.

supplemental essential genes A term used to describe 37 genes in the herpes simplex virus genome which are not needed for virus replication in cell culture, but may be required for other virus properties such as neuroinvasiveness.

suppressor A gene that can partially or completely reverse the effect of a mutation in another gene.

suppressor tRNA A tRNA molecule, produced by a suppressor gene, that can pair with a nonsense (termination) codon so that the correct amino acid is incorporated into the polypeptide chain.

Surubim virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Chan-guinola virus. Not associated with disease in humans.

SV5 See Simian virus type 5.

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