Threeday stiffsickness virus Synonym for

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Bovine ephemeral fever virus.

Thylaxoviridae (Saclike viruses. Greek: thylax = sac) A name suggested for the RNA tumor viruses by Professor Gilbert Highet, Head of Department of Greek and Latin, Columbia University. Not adopted.

Dalton AJ et al (1966) J Natl Cancer Inst 37, 395

thymidine kinase (TK) An enzyme which is induced in cells infected with some DNA viruses and which catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidylic acid. In papovavirus-infected cells the induced enzyme is cellular in origin, but the thymidine kinase induced by herpesviruses is specified by the virus genome and differs in several properties from the cell enzyme. This is the basis for inhibition of herpesviruses by acy-cloguanosine (acyclovir) which is phosphorylated by the virus-specified, but not the host, thymidine kinase.

thymidylate synthase (TS) An enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidylic acid to thymidine diphos-phate and the phosphorylation of thymidine diphosphate to thymidine triphosphate.

TIBO Tetrahydroimidazo(4,5,1-jk)(1,4)ben-zodiazepin-z(IH)-one. This compound and its derivatives are promising antiviral drugs that have specificity against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in cell culture. Appears to act on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at a different site from zidovudine (AZT) and is active against AZT-resistant strains.

Pauwels R et al (1990) Nature 343, 470

Tibrogargan virus (TIBV) An unassigned vertebrate rhabdovirus, antigenically related to lyssaviruses. Isolated from the mosquito, Culicoides brevitarsis, in Australia in 1976. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) A

species in the genus Flavivirus, in the Mammalian tick-borne virus group. There are three recognized subtypes: European, Far Eastern and Siberian. The viruses are distinguished as subtypes or strains on the basis of nucleotide sequence data, anti-genic characteristics, geographical association, vector association, host association, disease association and ecological characteristics. Overall, the maximum predicted amino acid sequence difference between strains included in this species is less than 6%. See Sofyn virus.

Ecker M et al (1999) J Gen Virol 80, 179

tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (European subtype) A subtype of Tickborne encephalitis virus in the genus Flavivirus, which vary by only 2.2% in amino acid sequence across the strains which make up the subtype. These include Absettarov virus, Hanzalova virus, Hypr virus, Kumlinge virus and Neudoerfl virus, which are strains varying in virulence and epidemiology. The main vector is a tick, Ixodes ricinus, but mosquitoes and mites may be involved in transmission. The tick is the most important reservoir of infection. Disease in humans is biphasic; a febrile illness of 4-10 days is followed by meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Mild or inapparent infections occur but in severe cases there is transient or permanent paralysis. Infection occurs in central Europe from Scandinavia to the Balkans and from Germany to the former western USSR. Experimentally the virus often kills mice; guinea pigs develop fever. Virus is often excreted in the milk of goats, sheep and cows and may be a source of infection for humans. It is also excreted in the urine. Control is by elimination of ticks. A vaccine is available.

Synonyms: biphasic milk fever virus; biundulant meningoencephalitis virus; diphasic milk fever; Central European encephalitis virus.

Ecker M et al (1999) J Gen Virol 80, 179

tick-borne encephalitis virus (Far Eastern subtype) A subtype in the Mammalian tick-borne virus group in the genus Flavivirus. Strains within the subtype include Crimea virus, Karshi virus, Negishi virus, Oshima virus, and Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) virus (Sofyn is the prototype strain). The species vary in virulence and epidemiology but differ from each other by predicted amino acid sequences by only 2.2%. Humans become infected by tick-bite or consumption of milk from infected animals. The clinical onset is an acute influenza-like illness with mild fever, headache and malaise that lasts for a week and is followed by an asymptomatic period. A second phase of illness involving meningitis occurs in about 25% of infections, and usually resolves, but there is an overall case fatality rate of about 1%. A formalin-inactivated vaccine is available for persons at high risk of infection. The vectors are ticks, Ixodes per-sulcatus and I. ricinus. A severe human infection causing flaccid paralysis and 30% mortality. Disease may also occur in naturally infected rodents and birds. The disease is found in the former eastern USSR but a few isolations have been made in Leningrad and elsewhere in the former western USSR, as well as China and Japan. Experimentally the virus causes encephalitis in mice and fever in guinea pigs. Injected i.c. it causes encephalitis in rhesus monkeys, sheep, goats and some wild rodents but not in others. Control is by elimination of ticks. A vaccine is available. Synonyms: Far East Russian encephalitis virus; Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus.

tick-borne encephalitis virus (Siberian subtype) A subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus in the genus Flavivirus. Includes two strains from Central Siberia, Aina virus and Vasilchenko virus, for which nucleotide sequence information is available and shows a predicted amino acid sequence difference from the European subtype of 3.6-5.6% and from the Far Eastern subtype of 3.8-5.6%.

Bakhvalova VN et al (2000) Virus Res 70, 1

tick-borne hemorrhagic fever A serious febrile hemorrhagic disease with significant mortality caused by several strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus, as well as Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus. In different outbreaks, mortality has generally ranged from 10 to 25%.

Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV) A species in the genus Betanodavirus, isolated from marine tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes.

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