Tillamook virus Tillv A strain of

Sakhalin virus in the genus Nairovirus belonging to the Sakhalin serogroup. Has been isolated from cattle in which it causes respiratory symptoms.

Tilligerry virus (TILV) A serotype of Eubenangee virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Eubenangee virus serogroup. Isolated from Anopheles annulipes caught in the Port Stephens Peninsula of New South Wales, Australia. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Gorman BH and Taylor J (1978) Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 56, 369

tilorone hydrochloride 2,7-bis-[2-(Diethyl-amino)ethoxy]-fluoren-9-one dihydro-chloride. An interferon inducer, active by mouth, with maximum interferon titers 24 h after administration. Inactive in cell cultures. Protects mice against Vesicular stomatitis virus. Toxic for the hematopoi-etic and reticuloendothelial systems.

Fitzwilliam JF and Griffith JF (1976) J Infect Dis 133 (suppl), 221

Timbo virus (TIMV) An unassigned species in the family Rhabdoviridae. With Chaco and Sena Madureira viruses forms the Timbo serogroup. Isolated from the lizard, Ameiva ameiva ameiva, in Para, Brazil. Not isolated from arthropods but considered to be arthropod-transmitted as it will replicate in experimentally infected mosquitoes. Will kill suckling mice but they are not as sensitive as Vero cells in which it replicates with CPE at 30°C. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Monath TP et al (1979) Arch Virol 60, 1

Timboteua virus (TBTV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus. Isolated from a sentinel mouse in Brazil.

Timbozal virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus. Isolated from phle-botomine flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Changuinola virus. Not associated with disease in humans.

time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) A technique for solid phase antigen detection that has especially been applied to respiratory viruses.

Scalia G et al (1995) Clin Diagn Virol 3, 351

Tinaroo virus (TINV) A serotype of Akabane virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Isolated from Culicoides in Queensland, Australia.

Tindholmur virus (TDMV) A serotype of Great Island virus in the genus Orbivirus, belonging to the Great Island complex, Kemerovo virus serogroup. Isolated from

Togaviridae

Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae in the Faeroe Islands, Denmark.

Tioman virus A probable species in the genus Rubulavirus, isolated from fruit-eating bats (Peromyscus sp) on Tioman island off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. The virus is pleomorphic, 100-350 nm diameter, compatible with viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus failed to cross-react with antibodies against many known paramyxoviruses, but did react by immunofluorescence with Menangle virus, although antiserum to Menangle virus did not neutralize Tioman virus. Sequencing of the nucleo-capsid and phosphoprotein genes shows that both Tioman and Menangle viruses are closely related to members of the Rubulavirus genus. Disease potential for animals or humans is unknown.

Chua KB et al (2001) Virology 283, 215

tissue culture The growth or maintenance of living tissue in a liquid or soft gel medium in vitro. A large number of techniques have been described, and these can be classified under three general headings: (1) organ culture, in which the organization of the tissue is maintained, e.g. culture of kidney slices; (2) tissue culture in the strict sense of the term, in which a fragment of tissue is cultured; and (3) cell culture, in which the tissue is broken down into individual cells, usually by proteolytic enzymes, before cultivation. Cell cultures are usually adherent to a solid surface (glass or plastic), but some cells group in suspension in liquid media. See culture medium.

George VG et al (1996) In Virology Methods Manual, edited by BWJ Mahy and HO Kangro. London: Academic Press, p. 3

titer (titre) The concentration of infectious virus present in a preparation measured by bioassay or a relative measure of the concentration of a specific antibody in antiserum.

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