Tlacotalpan virus Tlav A strain of

Bunyamwera virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging to the

Bunyamwera serogroup. Isolated in Mexico from mosquitoes of Anopheles and Aedes sp and Mansona titillans. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

Tm melting temperature The temperature at which a transition occurs (e.g. double-stranded to single-stranded DNA) when temperature is the independent thermo-dynamic variable.

Tobetsu-60Cr-93 virus A strain of Puumala virus in the genus Hantavirus isolated from the rodent Clethrionomys rufocanus.

Clement J et al (1997) Emerg Infect Dis 3, 205

Tocantins virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Changuinola virus. Not associated with disease in humans.

Tocaxa virus A possible species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Changuinola virus. Not associated with disease in humans.

Togaviridae (Latin: toga = mantle or cloak) A family of enveloped viruses containing positive single-stranded linear RNA, genome 9.7-11.8kb in size. Virions yield infective RNA which is capped at the 5' terminus and polyadenylated at the 3' end. Isometric, probably icosahedral (T = 4), nucleocapsids surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope containing host cell lipid and virus-specified polypeptides, including one or more glycoproteins. Inactivated by lipid solvents. Multiplication occurs in the cytoplasm where the genome RNA serves as mRNA for a polyprotein comprising the non-structural proteins, which participate in RNA replication, including the formation of a 26S RNA species termed 'subgenomic RNA' that encodes the viral structural proteins involved in encapsidation and envelopment of the virus. Both viral and cellular proteinase enzymes participate in cleaving the precursor polyproteins. The virus matures by budding from the plasma membrane. Agglutinate goose and newly hatched chick erythrocytes. There are two genera: Alphavirus and Rubivirus.

Togaviridae

Frey TK (1994) Adv Virus Res 44, 69 Strauss JH and Strauss EG (1994) Microbiol Rev 58, 491

ten Dam E et al (1999) J Gen Virol 80,1879

Tollwut virus Synonym for Rabies virus.

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