Toluidine blue A photoreactive dye See photodynamic inactivation

Tonate virus A strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, a species in the genus Alphavirus. Isolated from mosquitoes in French Guiana.

Topografov virus (TOPV) A species in the genus Hantavirus initially identified by immunoblotting liver samples from Siberian lemmings, Lemmus sibiricus, collected near the Topografov river in the Taymyr peninsula, Siberia. Following passage of the material in laboratory-bred Norwegian lemmings, Lemmus lemmus, the virus was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Topografov virus is 76-96% related by RNA sequence analysis to other European hantaviruses present in voles such as Puumula and Khabarovsk viruses. Both lemmings and voles are members of the rodent subfamily Arvicolinae, but lemmings are a more ancestral species. The disease potential of Topografov virus in humans is not known.

Vapalahti O et al (1999) J Virol 73, 5586

TORCH Toxoplasmosis; other; rubella; cytomegalovirus; herpes simplex. A popular acronym devised in 1971 by Professor Andre Nahmias, now viewed with some despair by microbiologists.

Nahmias AJ et al (1971) Am J Obstet Gynecol 110, 825

Toronto virus A strain of human calicivirus originally isolated from fecal specimens of small children with diarrhea in Toronto and called a 'minireovirus'. Now known to be a strain in the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses'.

Leite JPG et al (1996) Arch Virol 141, 865

Torovirus A genus in the family Coronaviridae. The type species is Equine torovirus. Virions are enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. The capsid may bend into an open torus, conferring a biconcave disk or kidney-shaped morphology to the virion (120-140nm) or the capsid may be a rod-shaped particle (35-170nm). The virus genome is positive-sense single-stranded RNA, about 20kb in length, with a polyadenylic acid tract at its 3' end. The RNA is surrounded by a major nucleocapsid phosphoprotein, mol. wt. ca. 20x103, which in turn is enveloped by a membrane containing one major protein, mol. wt. 26x103 and a phosphoprotein, mol. wt. 37x103. The peplomers, ca. 20nm in length, carry determinants for neutralization and hemagglutination, and consist of a polydispersed N-glyco-sylated protein, mol. wt. 75-100x103. Infected cells contain four subgenomic polyadenylated RNAs with mol. wt. 3.0, 0.71, 0.46 and 0.26x106. All the toro-viruses identified so far cause enteric infection. Species in the genus include Bovine torovirus (Breda virus, cattle), Equine torovirus (Berne virus, horses) as well as Porcine torovirus and Human torovirus. The viruses that occur in humans, horse and cattle are serologi-cally related.

Cavanagh D et al (1994) Arch Virol 135, 227 Koopmans M and Horzinek MC (1994) Adv

Virus Res 43, 233

tortoise virus 5 (TV5) A strain of Frog virus 3 in the genus Ranavirus.

Toscana virus (TOSV) A strain of Sandfly fever Naples virus in the genus Phlebovirus, belonging to the Salehabad complex of the sandfly fever Naples complex.

Toure virus An unclassified virus. Isolated from Kemp's gerbil, Tatera kempi, in Senegal. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

TO virus A strain of mouse encephalo-myelitis virus.

Tracambe virus An unclassified virus isolated from culicine mosquitoes in the Amazon region of Brazil.

Trager duck spleen necrosis virus (TDSNV) A species in the genus Gammaretrovirus, avian (Reticuloendo-

translation theliosis) virus group. Related antigeni-cally to Reticuloendotheliosis virus (strain T), Chick syncytial virus and duck infectious anemia virus.

Trager W (1959) Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 101, 578

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