Transcapsidation See phenotypic mixing

transcriptases Enzymes which bring about transcription. They may be DNA-depend-ent or RNA-dependent according to the template nucleic acid being transcribed.

transcription The process of transferring the information encoded in the base sequence of a template nucleic acid molecule to another. It can be either the formation of mRNA from DNA, or the production of a complementary strand from single-stranded RNA. The enzymes involved are DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-dependent RNA poly-merase and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcription).

transduction Transfer of host DNA genetic material from one cell to another by a transducing bacteriophage or animal virus such as a retrovirus. The introduction of oncogenes into cells by retroviruses is a specialized form of trans-duction.

transfection Direct transmission of genetic material (viral infectivity) into cells using isolated nucleic acid extracted from cells or virus particles, in contrast to transmission by infective virus particles.

Miller G et al (1979) Proc Natl Acad Sci 76, 949

transferases A large class of enzymes catalyzing the transfer of groups from one molecule to another. Included are enzymes transferring one-carbon groups (e.g. transmethylases) aldehyde residues (e.g. transketolase), acyl groups (e.g. transacetylase), sugars (e.g. trans-glucosylase), nitrogenous groups (e.g. transaminases), phosphorus-containing groups (e.g. protein kinase) and sulfur-containing groups (e.g. CoA transferases).

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